Dairy Product

Dairy ProductDairy Product.

Dairy products are a major source of calcium and vitamin D. Only a small proportion of the numerous epidemiologic studies of dairy products and CRC show statistically significant inverse associations [45,100,101,120,121].

Related terms:

Isotopes of Calcium Vitamin D Protein Yoghurt Iodine Saturated Fatty Acid Calcium Intake Whole Grain Lactose.

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Dairy Products.

Dairy products are extremely diverse as a result of the robust composition of milk and the types of microorganisms that can grow in milk. The first dairy ‘products’ were a result of the accidental introduction of microorganisms in milk. The introduction of harmful microorganisms can result in severe food poisoning, whereas beneficial ones can result in a product that is safe, nutritious, and tasty. Over time the types of microorganisms that can give rise to specific products have been identified, characterized, and standardized inocula created. The majority of the organisms used for fermenting dairy products are lactic acid bacteria because of their ability to convert lactose to lactic acid efficiently. Lactic acid helps to increase acidity, coagulate proteins, and prevent the growth of undesirable organisms. Some minor metabolic end products and degradation of proteins and lipids also contribute to the flavor of dairy products. The diversity of dairy products is a result of the different types of milk used, the microorganisms, and the type of processes used.

Food Science Basics: Healthy Cooking and Baking Demystified.

Jacqueline B. Marcus MS, RD, LD, CNS, FADA, in Culinary Nutrition , 2013.

Advantages of Dairy Products in Cooking and Baking.

Dairy products provide body, carbohydrate (sugar, in the form of lactose), fat globules (depending on the fat content), flavor (aroma, taste and texture), milk protein, moisture and sodium in product development, cooking and baking applications. Dairy substitutes, such as soy milk and other plant-based products, may provide some but not all of these attributes. Sometimes their watery consistency, strong flavor, bitter aftertaste and/or astringency may be objectionable.

As a whole, dairy products are very versatile ingredients in savory and sweet recipes. The following are some of the advantages of using dairy products:

Butter, with its rich flavor, is useful as a sauce and emulsifier. Butter can withstand a fair amount of heat; it is mostly saturated fats that hold together well.

Cultured buttermilk and yogurt, with their mouthfeel, tanginess and tenderness, are useful in muffins, pancakes, scones and waffles where the major leavener is baking soda.

Dairy milk adds rich and mellow flavor (depending on fat content).

Dairy milk and cream, with their mouthfeel and richness, remain intact in milk and cream-enriched sauces, since both can withstand heat.

Reduced-fat dairy milk, with its concentrated protein, is good for foaming (although the foam tends to be fragile and is not long lasting).

Sweetened and condensed milk, with their concentrated protein and sugars, is useful for quick, caramel-flavored sauces.

As a whole, dairy products are not recommended for lactose-intolerant people or for those who are sensitive to casein, the major protein in dairy milk. The following are some general drawbacks of using some dairy products:

Butter has a low smoke point and should not be heated to high temperatures.

Butter is slightly more difficult to work with than shortening when preparing pastry and other doughs because it is harder.

Butter is only about 80 percent fat; it contributes additional water to a mixture that could affect the outcome of a recipe.

Cultured milk products are very susceptible to curdling when exposed to acid, heat, salt or stirring.

Deterioration of dairy milk and some dairy products may affect their aroma and taste.

Evaporated, aseptically packed, shelf-stable and some powdered milk may have a slight caramelized flavor and be less desirable in delicate desserts, such as cream pie filling, custard or pudding.

Intense heat may cause dairy milk and some dairy products to brown and develop a caramelized flavor. This is usually due to their natural sugars.

Patient advice and self-help sheets.

David Peters MBChB DRCOG MFHom MLCOM, . Sue Morrison MA FRCGP, in Integrating Complementary Therapies in Primary Care , 2002.

Self-Help Sheet Dairy-free Diet.

WHY A DAIRY-FREE DIET?

Dairy products , especially hard cheeses, contain high levels of saturated fats, which are not good for us and can contribute, amongst other things, to the development of heart disease. Most of us could benefit from cutting down on dairy products or cutting them out of our diet altogether. If your practitioner has suggested this here is a list of food and drink which you can eat and drink instead of milk, cheese, youghurt, etc.

ALTERNATIVES TO DAIRY PRODUCTS.

Instead of dairy products , the following may be substituted.

Instead of milk:

nut milk—almond milk, cashew milk.

oat milk—but not if on a grain-free diet.

Instead of ice cream:

fresh fruit sorbets.

frozen or fresh fruit smoothies.

fruit ice cubes.

frozen rice desserts (rice milk)

frozen tofu desserts.

Instead of cheese:

ground sunflower seeds.

Some of these foods, especially the substitutes for milk, will cost you a little more.

CHANGING EATING HABITS.

Changing habits, especially those to do with diet, takes time and not a little effort. If you find that this diet helps you but are having some problems sticking to it then please discuss this with your practitioner. We also have a leaflet called ‘Making changes’ which may help you identify why you are having difficulty and may also help you to solve the problem.

HOW LONG WILL I NEED TO CHANGE MY DIET FOR?

If your practitioner has suggested this diet please give yourself a chance by following it for at least a couple of months so that you will be able, together with your practitioner, to assess your improvement. If you feel a lot better then it means dairy products are a problem for you. So you may not want to reintroduce dairy products to your diet. It may be possible to reintroduce the food to your diet after a period of at least six months absence and this should be done with care. Ideally plan this together with your practitioner.

COOKING AND EATING WITH OTHERS AND EATING OUT?

Changing your eating habits may affect family and friends with whom you cook and eat. Please talk to them about any changes that have been suggested to you by your practitioner which may affect them to see how they feel.

Note If you are putting a child on a dairy-free diet you should ask to see a dietician or nutrition counsellor to make sure the diet is balanced.

Protein Basics: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Food and Health.

Jacqueline B. Marcus MS, RD, LD, CNS, FADA, in Culinary Nutrition , 2013.

Dairy Products.

Dairy products are excellent sources of high-quality protein; vitamins, including niacin, phosphorus, potassium, riboflavin, vitamins B12 and D; and minerals, including calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium.

One 4-ounce serving of low-fat (2%) cottage cheese has about 15 grams of protein; 1 cup of plain nonfat yogurt has about 12 grams of protein; 1 cup of fat-free dairy milk has about 8 grams of protein; and 1 cup of vanilla ice cream has about 4 grams of protein. Calories and other nutrients vary.

Diet, Alcohol, Obesity, Hyperuricemia, and Risk of Gout.

Dairy Intake.

Dairy products may exert their urate-lowering effects without the concomitant purine load contained in other animal protein sources such as meat and seafood. 75-77 Ingestion of milk proteins (casein and lactalbumin) has been shown to decrease serum urate levels in healthy subjects via the uricosuric effect of these proteins. 75 Furthermore, a recent randomized trial has shown that milk intake has an acute urate-lowering effect via its low purine content in combination with increased excretion of uric acid in response to a protein load. 77 Conversely, a previous 4-week randomized clinical trial showed a significant increase in uric acid level was induced by a dairy-free diet. 76 In terms of nationally representative data on this link, dairy consumption was inversely associated with serum urate levels. 4.

For the risk of gout, men in the highest quintile of dairy intake in the HPFS had a 44% lower risk compared with the lowest quintile, and the inverse association was limited to low-fat dairy consumption. 3 Men in the highest quintile of dairy protein intake had a 48% lower risk of gout compared with the lowest quintile. 3 The absence of the inverse association with high-fat dairy products could result from the counteracting effect of saturated fats contained in high-fat dairy products. Studies have suggested that low-fat dairy foods are associated with several potential health benefits, including a lower incidence of CHD, 78 premenopausal breast cancer, 79 colon cancer, 80 and type 2 diabetes. 81 Further, low-fat dairy foods have been one of the main components of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which has been shown to substantially lower blood pressure. 82 However, dairy consumption, including low-fat dairy foods, has been implicated in possible increases in prostate cancer. 83 Weighing these benefits and risks, the recent healthy lifestyle pyramid recommends one to two daily servings of dairy products 72 (see Fig. 11-1 ). This recommendation could be readily extended to patients with gout or hyperuricemia, perhaps with added benefits against comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. 78,81,82.

Microbiology of Fermented Dairy Products.

Abstract.

Microorganisms in dairy products have extremely important roles, which are essential to obtain final products with defined organoleptic and physic-chemical characteristics. Microbial ecology of dairy products is very complex, involving bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, and its complexity is also related to the richness in types of products, different for ingredients and technologies, which drive a specific ecosystem to be created. In this article we will describe the main groups of microorganism important in the dairy sector and we will discuss about the latest contributions that molecular methods have given in terms of exploring the microbial biodiversity of dairy products.

DAIRY PRODUCTS – NUTRITIONAL CONTRIBUTION.

Introduction.

Dairy products are traditional dietary items in many parts of the world, in particular in regions such as northern Europe where the cooler climate is especially suited to dairying. The history of milk as a food has been documented over the centuries and examples of early dairying are depicted in Egyptian friezes such as that from the sarcophagus of Queen Kawit from Der-al-Bahri, between Luxor and Karnack, dating back 4000 years. There is an even earlier Mesopotamian frieze from the temple of Nin-khasarg, near Ur, which is thought to be 1000 years older.

The popularity of milk as a staple food over the centuries must partly be due to its versatility. Early humans discovered that it could be churned to make butter and fermented with bacterial cultures to produce cheese and yogurt, all of which were methods of preserving some or all of the nutrients in milk for consumption at a later date. ( See CHEESES | Dietary Importance ; MILK | Dietary Importance ; YOGURT | Dietary Importance .)

This article summarizes the nutritional contribution made by milk and milk products.

Food Allergy and Intolerance.

Foods You Must Avoid.

Dairy products : Milk, cheese, butter, yogurt, sour cream, cottage cheese, whey, casein, sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate, and any food containing these.

Wheat : Most breads, spaghetti, noodles, pasta, most flour, baked goods, durum semolina, farina, and many gravies. Although this diet prohibits wheat, it is not a gluten-free diet. Oats, barley, and rye are allowed.

Corn : Whole corn and foods made with corn (such as corn chips, tortillas, popcorn, and breads and other baked goods that list corn as an ingredient). Also avoid products that contain corn oil, vegetable oil from an unspecified source, corn syrup, corn sweetener, dextrose, and glucose.

Eggs : Whites and yolks, and any product that contains eggs.

Citrus fruits : Oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and foods that contain citrus fruits.

Coffee, tea, and alcohol : Avoid both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, as well as standard (such as Lipton) tea and decaffeinated tea. Herb teas are allowed, except those that contain citrus.

Refined sugars : Avoid table sugar and any foods that contain sugar, such as candy, soft drinks, pies, cake, cookies, chocolate, sweetened apple sauce, etc. Other names for sugar include sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, corn sweetener, fructose, cane juice, glucose, dextrose, maltose, maltodextrin, and levulose. These must all be avoided. Some patients (depending on their suspected sensitivity to refined sugar) will be allowed 1–3 teaspoons per day of pure, unprocessed honey, maple syrup, or barley malt syrup. This will be decided on an individual basis. Patients restricted from all sugars should not eat dried fruit. Those who are not restricted from all sugars may eat unsulfured (organically grown) dried fruits sparingly. Because little is known about alternative sweeteners such as stevia, they should not be used during the elimination phase.

Honey, maple syrup, or barley syrup (1–3 teaspoons per day) ◻ Allowed◻ Not allowed.

Food additives : Avoid artificial colors, flavors, preservatives, texturing agents, artificial sweeteners, etc. Most diet sodas and other dietetic foods contain artificial ingredients and must be avoided. Grapes, prunes, and raisins that are not organically grown may contain sulfites and should be avoided.

Any other food you eat three times a week or more : Any food you are now eating three times a week or more should be avoided and tested later.

Known allergens : Avoid any food you know you are allergic to, even if it is allowed on this diet.

Tap water (including cooking water): Tap water is eliminated in cases where more extreme sensitivity is suspected. If tap water is not allowed, use spring or distilled water bottled in glass or hard plastic. Water bottled in soft (collapsible) plastic containers tends to leach plastic into the water. Bottles with the numbers 3 or 7 are likely to leach phthalates. Choose bottles and containers that are free of bisphenol A (BPA). Some water filtration systems do not take out all potential allergens. Take your water with you, including to work and to restaurants.

Tap water◻ Allowed◻ Not allowed.

Fermented Milk in Protection Against Inflammatory Mechanisms in Obesity.

29.4.1 Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum on Adipocyte Regulation and Inflammation.

Dairy products (milk fat, cheese, yogurt) that are a major source of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) from linoleic acid ( Alonso et al., 2003; Coakley et al., 2003; Van Nieuwenhove et al., 2007 ) have potential antiobesity, anticarcinogenic ( Ha et al., 1990 ) and antiatherogenic effects ( Lee et al., 1994; Park et al., 1997 ). As CLA is both a cis fatty acid and a trans fatty acid, other isomers of CLA have been put to use. Lee et al. (2007b) studied the effect of trans -10, cis -12 CLA produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60 (10 9 CFU/mouse) in DIO C57BL/6J mice model and observed a significant reduction in body weight, epididymal fat mass, and plasma glucose levels, primarily due to an increased expression of an uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue. In nature, this uncoupling protein generates heat by thermogenesis. Thus, its upregulation is accompanied by dissipation of metabolic stores and a subsequent loss in body weight. In a separate study the same group examined the effect of L. plantarum PL62 in mice and observed an antiobesity effect; this strain also produced the trans -10, cis -12-CLA isomer. They thus concluded that trans -10, cis -12-CLA could replace CLA for the treatment of obesity.

In the gut, there are several structural entities that are protective against inflammation. The intestinal epithelial layer provides a barrier from the external environment including pathogens and toxins. Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis lead to damage of the intestinal barrier ( Barbara, 2006; Bruewer et al., 2006 ). These barriers are maintained by complexes comprising tight junction (TJ) proteins (that are formed by protein dimers), adherens junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions ( Farquhar and Palade, 1963 ). Of these, TJ proteins maintain the barrier between adjacent cell membranes ( Farquhar and Palade, 1963 ); their disruption, often caused by detrimental bacterial strains, is the cause of progression of inflammation in the gut. Thus populating the intestines with health beneficial micro-organisms (probiotics) can, via modulation of harmful bacteria, protect and enhance the intestinal barrier layer. As shown in Fig. 29.1 , the increase in the size of the AT that is caused by the consumption of HFD, leads to less vascularization which results in infiltration of the immune cells (macrophages). Previously, Cani et al. (2007) observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (released from the Gram negative bacteria) levels were significantly higher in DIO mice. The increased circulatory LPS levels damage tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1) of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Increased LPS levels further promote binding to Toll-like/CD14 receptors (located on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils) ( Goyert et al., 1988; Haziot et al., 1988 ), which in turn trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1).

Figure 29.1 . (A) High fat diet intake contributes alteration of gut microbiota. Due to alteration in the Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) released from the gram-negative bacteria damage the intestinal tight junction proteins and the increased circulatory LPS levels activate proinflammatory cytokines. (B) Modulation of gut microbiota by fermented milk with lactobacilli inhibits the plasma LPS to decrease inflammation. In addition, fermented products (probiotics, kefir, and yogurt) also showed less adiposity in animal and humans.

One of the probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum MB452, isolated from VSL#3 (is a mixture of L. plantarum , L. casei , L. acidophilus , L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus , B. longum , B. breve , B. infantis and Streptococcus thermophilus ) was observed to have an enhanced effect on tight junction integrity as determined by trans-epithelial electrical resistance in Caco-2 cell layers ( Anderson et al., 2010 ). The researchers observed that occludin and its associated protein (ZO-1, ZO-2, and cingulin) expression was higher in the presence of L. plantarum MB452. In another study, L. plantarum KY1032 (2×10 7 to 2×10 10 cfu/day, isolated from Kiimchi , Korean traditional fermented cabbage) administered for 8 weeks to HFD fed obese mice showed a significant reduction in the body weight (35% reduction) and white fat mass (31%) compared with the control group. Further, L. plantarum KY1032 also showed a positive effect in terms of reduction in proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) of both liver and adipose tissue ( Park et al., 2013 ). The same group also studied the probiotic effect of L. plantarum KY1032 in reducing fat accumulation in both liver and AT in high-fat high-cholesterol-fed mice for 9 weeks ( Yoo et al., 2013 ). They observed a decrease in the fat accumulation that might be caused by downregulation of lipid metabolism genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), LPL levels in AT and colon. Another possible reason for reduction of fat is that these micro-organisms are actively metabolizing carbohydrates from the diet to increase competition for nutrients in the gut or releasing antimicrobial proteins. Moreover, L. plantarum KY1032 supplementation also showed lower plasma and liver cholesterol levels by preventing intestinal cholesterol absorption which was excreted into feces. In addition, KY1032 inhibited the liver acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity to increase the storage of cholesterol.

Another organism L. plantarum LG42 (1×10 7 and 1×10 9 cfu/mL, GLAB) isolated from gajami sik hae, a type of Korean traditional fermented seafood produced by fermentation of flat fish meat, was administered to C57BL/6J mice fed on HFD for a period of 12 weeks. Oral administration of both low and high doses of LG42 showed reduction in body weight and epididymal fat along with downregulation of acetyl-co-A carboxylase and upregulation of PPAR-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I levels ( Park et al., 2014 ), all of which contribute to reduction in indices of metabolic syndrome. In our recent study, milk fermented by indigenous probiotic L. plantarum (LP625) alone or in combination of herbs ( Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre ) fed to HFD mice for 12 weeks, caused a significant reduction in the epididymal fat mass, fasting blood glucose, and serum insulin levels. Further, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at mRNA levels were significantly downregulated ( Pothuraju et al., 2016 ).

Beverage Interventions to Prevent Child Obesity.

Rebecca Muckelbauer, . Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, in Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity , 2011.

Definition, Recommendations, and Consumption.

Milk and dairy products are an important part of children’s diet because of their significant contribution to daily nutrient requirements of numerous macro- and micronutrients such as protein, calcium, and iodine [47] . Thus, several national food-based guidelines provide amounts or servings of daily consumption. In Germany, a daily intake of 300 to 500 g, depending on age, is recommended [13, 47]. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for children aged 1 to 8 years a daily milk and dairy consumption of 2 cups and for older children and adolescents 3 cups [16] . Furthermore, in several Western societies, the recommended milk for school-aged children and adolescents is fat-reduced milk instead of full-fat milk [13, 16, 47] . With regard to the other extreme of fat content, skim milk with a fat content of 0.3% is also not recommended for children because of the low vitamin A and D content [13] .

The time trend observed in the past decades toward a decreased milk consumption among children and adolescents—for example, in the United States [3, 19] and in Germany [51] —is worrying. For instance, around 60% of children and adolescents in Germany do not reach the recommended intake of milk and dairy products [81] . In Belgium, young children had a higher consumption of milk and dairy products compared to German children, but according to the Belgian food-based dietary guidelines, also a percentage of 50% to 70%, depending on age and sex, did not reach the recommended daily amount [82]. Another observation was that with increasing age of the children, the consumption of milk products decreased and the gap to the recommended amounts widened [82, 81] .

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