Novel Coronavirus Information Center

Novel Coronavirus Information CenterNovel Coronavirus Information Center.

Elsevier’s free health and medical research on the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19.

Welcome to Elsevier’s Novel Coronavirus Information Center Here you will find expert, curated information for the research and health community on SARS-CoV-2 (the novel coronavirus) and COVID-19 (the disease).

All resources are free to access and include guidelines for clinicians and patients.

For Researchers Under the Research tab, you will find the latest early-stage and peer-reviewed research on COVID-19 from journals including The Lancet and Cell Press. We have also made more than 21,000 related articles free to access on ScienceDirect. These articles are also available to download with rights for full text and data mining, re-use and analyses for as long as needed.

Download full text for data mining Username: public | Password: beat_corona (note: FTP client software/plugin needed to access download)

For Clinicians Under the Clinical information tab, you will find evidence-based skill guides and care plans for treatment, safety and patient education, along with emergency prepared webinars by the CDC.

For Patients In the Patient resources section, you can find our 3D4Medical coronavirus video, resources from the CDC and WHO, and information about Elsevier’s Patient Access Program for research.

Share your feedback to help us improve our Novel Coronavirus Information Center.

Introduction.

Margaret Trexler Hessen, MD, Director, Point of Care, Elsevier.

Recent events have shown us (again) how rapidly a new disease can take root and spread. Such events are accompanied by an explosion of clinical and epidemiological information and research. The goal of this website is to open whatever resources we can to help public health authorities, researchers and clinicians contain and manage this disease. We provide continually updated resources from Elsevier’s content and experts. Our resources span scientific and medical journals and textbooks, educational products and a new R&D tool. We have also created an interactive global map of experts based on Scopus data.

In addition, Elsevier is now enabling full text and data mining of this growing body of knowledge through channels such as the NIH’s PubMed Central and the WHO database for free and without copyright limitations.

The site is curated by clinical experts from our Global Health business and updated frequently to keep pace with evolving knowledge.

Elsevier, Cell Press and The Lancet have also joined the signatories on the Wellcome Trust’s Statement designed to ensure that research findings and data relevant to this outbreak are shared rapidly and openly to inform the public health response and help save lives.

If you’re looking for information on our other free and low-cost access programs, including resources for patients and caregivers, you can find that here.

Clinical information.

Elsevier COVID-19 Healthcare Hub.

Gain access to our latest evidence-based practices and resources for COVID-19, covering topics from symptom management to diagnosis, treatment and ongoing wellness.

New ventilator recommendations.

Ventilator protocol from NIH-NHLBI ARDS Network (April 7, 2020) ECRI clinical evidence assessment for single ventilator use with multiple patients (April 7, 2020) Recommended strategies from the US Public Health Service to optimize provision of mechanical ventilation (March 30, 2020) Joint Statement on Multiple Patients Per Ventilator (March 26, 2020)

Use and reuse of N95 respirators.

Book chapters on ventilation and respiratory support.

Mechanical Ventilation, Chapter 101, Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Edition (Elsevier, 2016) Noninvasive Ventilation, Chapter 102, Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Edition (Elsevier, 2016) Respiratory Support and Artificial Ventilation, Chapter 31, Nunn’s Applied Respiratory Physiology, Eighth Edition (Elsevier, 2017)

NEJM videos in clinical medicine procedures.

NEJM has made a selection of procedural training videos to assist non-ICU clinical staff caring for critically ill patients. They are freely available for the during of the outbreak.

Use of PPE by anesthesia professionals.

Joint statement on use of personal protective equipment from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF), American Academy of Anesthesiologist Assistants (AAAA) and American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA).

Video: How Fangcang Shelter Hospitals function in combating COVID-19.

With Chen Wang, MD, PhD, FCCP, President of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences | April 1, 2020.

When Wuhan faced a surge of COVID-19 patients, they couldn’t all be admitted to hospitals, and high infection risk threatened the lives of health workers. That same situation is now occurring around the world.

Read more and watch the video.

The turning point in Wuhan was reached about a month ago as all patients were admitted to be cared for by medical professionals. Among the institutions involved was Fangcang Shelter Hospitals. In this video, Dr. Chen Wang, President of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College and prominent expert on respiratory and critical care medicine — who proposed the Fangcang idea — shows how they operate on the front lines. Watch the video.

JACC: COVID-19 guidance for cardiovascular clinicians.

As you work together on the front lines, the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (AJCC) journals and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) are providing COVID-19 clinical guidance for global cardiovascular clinicians. Here you can find recently accepted manuscripts and webinars from the American College of Cardiology.

New podcast series.

Expert Insights on COVID-19 with Elsevier.

Elsevier has created a new podcast series for frontline clinicians and providers. In this three-part series, experts share their insights into the mode of transmission and pathophysiology of the virus, how medical informatics and telemedicine are used to manage the pandemic, and best practices for emergency nursing crisis preparedness.

Listen to the podcasts.

Episode 1: SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Transmissibility, Pathophysiology and Treatment features Dr. Stanley Perlman, MD, PhD, Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Dr. Perlman, who has studied coronaviruses for 4 decades, discusses mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during asymptomatic and presymptomatic state, pathophysiology and disease progression, and touches on treatment options and vaccine development. He is interviewed by Margaret Trexler Hessen, MD, Director, Point of Care, for Elsevier. Episode 2: COVID-19 and Emergency Preparedness features Dr. Daniel Nadworny, DNP, RN, Director of Emergency and Patient Care Services at Beth Israel Deaconess Milton Hospital in Massachusetts. Dr. Nadworny, an expert on emergency crisis preparedness, discusses best practices and standards of care regarding isolations, triage, testing, the changing dynamic of PPE, and supporting patients, families and staff in the current crisis. The host is Dr. Julibeth Lauren, PhD, APRN, ACNS-BC, Vice President, Editor-in-Chief, Nursing and Allied Health Practice and Patient Education at Elsevier. Episode 3: Medical Informatics and COVID-19: Role and Utility of Hospital Digital Resources and Telemedicine in Managing the Pandemic features Dr. Rebecca G. Mishuris, MD, Associate Chief Medical Information Officer at Boston Medical Center and Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine. In this episode, Dr. Mishuris highlights the current state of EHR use to identify and track patients on the population level, advising and alerting patients, the role of telemedicine, and communication between providers and hospitals. The host is Dr. Sandy Falk, MD, Executive Editor-in-Chief, Clinical Practice Content at Elsevier.

COVID-19 drug therapy — potential options.

Pharmacists in Elsevier’s Clinical Solutions group write about potential treatment options for COVID-19. Read their paper.

More drug therapy guidance.

Possible COVID-19 Pharmacotherapies and QTc/TdP Liability, Mayo Clinic Proceedings (March 25, 2020) Interim guidance for COVID-19 for persons with HIV (NIH) Patients taking ACE-i and ARBs who contract COVID-19 should continue treatment, unless otherwise advised by their physician (Statement from the American Heart Association, the Heart Failure Society of America and the American College of Cardiology, March 17, 2020)

Elsevier Clinical Solutions.

We’ve selected content from ClinicalKey, Clinical Solutions Nursing, Interprofessional Practice and Patient Education collections to share what we know to date about the novel coronavirus.

New: Elsevier COVID-19 Healthcare Hub.

Receive access to our latest evidence-based practices and resources for COVID-19, covering topics from symptom management to diagnosis, treatment and ongoing wellness.

Clinical Overviews on ClinicalKey.

Clinical Overviews are easy-to-scan clinically focused medical topic summaries designed to match the clinician workflow. Elsevier’s Point-of-Care Editorial team develops Clinical Overviews through a process that includes review and revision by a medical editor; peer reviews performed by subject matter experts; a production review to ensure consistency in style, grammar, and punctuation; and a final evaluation by the editor-in-chief.

Clinical Skills for Nursing.

Clinical Skills for Nursing provides the highest quality evidence for nursing practice procedures for nurses to care for patients. Our Isolation Precautions and Personal Protective Equipment checklists align with CDC and OSHA guidelines:

Interprofessional Care Plans.

These Interprofessional Care Plans provide an evidence-based and individualizable Interprofessional plan of care to manage fever and the possible development of pneumonia, which is consistent with the presentation of this virus. Using an interprofessional approach to patient care that aligns current evidence with the individual needs of the patient results in improved patient care outcomes.

Patient engagement resources.

Patient engagement resources use plain language to support shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers. The goal is to deliver the right message in the right way at the time the patient is most ready to learn. The following resources provide an overview of the novel coronavirus to help patients and their families understand their risk, identify signs and symptoms, and prevent it from spreading:

Key facts for clinicians.

By Margaret Trexler Hessen, MD, Director, Point of Care, Elsevier | Updated March 2, 2020.

Background: In December, China notified the World Health Organization of several cases of human respiratory illness, which appeared to be linked to an open seafood and livestock market in the city of Wuhan. The infecting agent has since been identified as a novel coronavirus, now called SARS – CoV-2 (initially called 2019-nCoV).

Novel Coronavirus associated infection is now designated as COVID-19. Although the virus is presumed zoonotic in origin, person-to-person spread is evident. Cases have now been reported in many parts of mainland China and in other countries throughout the world. Outbreaks involving large numbers of people are ongoing in South Korea, Iran and Italy, and local transmission is occurring on a smaller scale in other countries. Travel restrictions and quarantine measures have been placed in some affected areas. Screening of travelers is being implemented in other countries and quarantine measures have been enacted under some circumstances. While the number of new cases in China is declining, the scope and trajectory of infection elsewhere remains to be seen.

Novel coronaviruses have emerged as human pathogens in the past, notably associated with outbreaks of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome). Current investigative methods and recommendations derive in some part from the experience of those epidemics.

Clinical presentation: The incubation period is thought to be 2 to 14 days. Symptoms include fever (which may be absent in persons at extremes of age or with immunocompromise), cough and dyspnea. Chest radiographs may show bilateral infiltrates. Clinical illness varies from mild to severe; about 25 percent of confirmed cases have been classified as severe, with up to 32 percent requiring intensive care for respiratory support. Some reports suggest worsening during the second week of illness. In early cases, mortality was associated with advanced age or comorbidities. Asymptomatic infection has also been described.

Diagnosis: Although respiratory infections (including influenza) are prevalent in the northern hemisphere during the winter, clinicians should inquire about travel history and exposure to possible or known COVID-19 in persons presenting with respiratory illness. The possibility of COVID-19 should be suspected in persons who present with compatible clinical illness and exposure history. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) developed criteria for whom to test, and these have been modified continually. With significant outbreaks in several countries and community transmission in others, as well as wider availability of diagnostic test kits, both organizations have broadened recommendations for testing. CDC now recommends that clinicians use their judgment, informed by knowledge of local COVID-19 activity as well as travel history and other risk factors, to determine the need for testing in patients with a compatible clinical illness. WHO defines a suspect case (for whom testing is recommended) as follows:

A patient with acute respiratory illness (fever and at least one sign/symptom of respiratory disease) AND no other etiology that fully explains the condition AND a history of travel to or residence in an area reporting local transmission of COVID-19 during the 14 days prior to symptom onset A patient with any acute respiratory illness AND contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case in the last 14 days prior to symptom onset A patient with severe acute respiratory infection (as defined above) AND requiring hospitalization AND without other explanatory etiology.

In the United States, suspected cases should be reported immediately to local or state health departments, which will determine whether the patient meets clinical and epidemiologic criteria for disease and can aid in coordinating diagnostic testing, as well as monitoring and contact tracing. The FDA has provided guidance permitting use of validated diagnostic tests developed by other qualified laboratories that have submitted a request for emergency use authorization, in order to increase testing capacity. The WHO Prequalification Team has also opened an Emergency Use Listing for manufacturers to submit newly developed diagnostic tests. Collection of specimens from the upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract and serum is recommended as a priority; other specimens, such as stool or urine, may be collected and stored to be tested at the discretion of the CDC. The CDC provides detailed information on collection and shipping of specimens for cases approved by local or state authorities for processing by CDC. The CDC advises that testing for other respiratory pathogens by the provider should be done as part of the initial evaluation and should not delay specimen shipping to CDC.

If a patient with suspected COVID-2019 infection tests positive for another respiratory pathogen, after clinical evaluation and consultation with public health authorities, they may no longer be considered a person under investigation.

Management: Patients with a mild clinical presentation may not require hospitalization but should be monitored for worsening, especially in the second week of illness. No specific antiviral agent is available for treatment of this infection, although clinical trials are in progress and some antiviral agents (e.g., remdesivir) may be available for compassionate use (see clinicaltrials.gov). Treatment is supportive and includes supplemental oxygen, conservative fluid management and when needed, critical care measures (mechanical ventilation, hemodynamic support), as indicated by clinical condition. WHO provides detailed guidance on such supportive measures and cautions that severely ill patients should be treated empirically for other possible causes while diagnostic test results are pending.

Infection control measures are an integral part of management:

Provide the patient with a face mask and place the patient in a closed room (preferably with structural safeguards against airborne transmission). Persons entering the room should follow standard, contact, and airborne precautions. Patients managed at home are encouraged to self-isolate to a single area of the house (preferably with a separate bathroom) and to wear a face mask during any contact with household members. The patient and all household members should follow diligent hand and cough hygiene.

Complications : Respiratory failure and septic shock occur in some patients. The case fatality rate is about 3 percent.

Margaret Trexler Hessen, MD, is an infectious disease specialist with 20 years of clinical practice experience and public health service, including outbreak management. She has been with Elsevier since 2010 and is currently Director, Point of Care.

More resources for clinicians.

Coronavirus:guidance for anaesthesia and perioperative care providers (World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists) Interim guidelines for collecting, handling and testing clinical specimens for COVID-19 (CDC) Emergency preparedness resources for clinicians (CDC) CDC’s page on Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Infection prevention and control for the care of patients with nCoV in healthcare settings (European CDC) Guidance for healthcare professionals (CDC) Information for Laboratories (CDC) COVID-19 Clinical Guidance for Global Cardiovascular Clinicians from the Journal of the American College of Cardiology JAMA Network video: Coronavirus in Italy – Q&A with ICU Physician Maurizio Cecconi of Humanitas University NEJM podcast and transcript): Dr. Anthony Fauci on talking with patients about COVID-19 (March 10, 2020)

中文资源 (Chinese-language resources )

Resources from Elsevier’s Clinical Solutions team in China.

Date Title Published by (CN) Published by (EN) Link Virology 病毒学 1月24日 新型冠状病毒国家科技资源服务系统。共享: 1)第一株病毒毒种信息及其电镜照片 2)新型冠状病毒核酸检测引物和探针序列 国家微生物科学数据中心和国家病原微生物资源库 National Microbiological Data Center; National Pathogen Resource Collection Center http://nmdc.cn/#/nCoV.

View more resources.

Diagnosis & Treatment Guidelines 诊疗指南 4月8日 新冠病毒无症状感染者管理规范 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202004/9d3edaaebb9a4c369f42c61039be35fe.shtml 4月8日 新冠肺炎出院患者复诊复检工作方案(试行) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202004/1ba91504225040a7ac2c9eda48cc4e7e.shtml 4月1日 新型冠状病毒肺炎重型、危重型病例诊疗方案(试行 第二版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202004/c083f2b0e7eb4036a59be419374ea89a.shtml 3月29日 Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 7) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://en.nhc.gov.cn/2020-03/29/c_78469.htm 3月19日 Guidelines for COVID-19 Epidemiological Investigations 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/99b0a945-a516-410a-9260-7db46e792877 3月15日 Guidelines for Investigation and Management of Close Contacts of COVID-19 Cases 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/aa16e57b-d717-40f0-bf34-265c6e011508 3月13日 Technical Guidelines for COVID-19 Laboratory Testing 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/0f6dc581-08f4-4828-97f0-9cc805969bbb 3月13日 Guidelines for Personal Protection of Specific Groups from COVID-19 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/65577621-f02e-4c47-b883-f70659c300b3 3月13日 Technical Guidelines for Disinfection of Special Sites for COVID-19 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/7120f4f9-e03d-4164-9bf2-3e097d4b3734 3月13日 新冠肺炎出院患者健康管理方案(试行) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202003/056b2ce9e13142e6a70ec08ef970f1e8.shtml 3月12日 重症新型冠状病毒肺炎管理专家推荐意见 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association https://www.cma.org.cn/art/2020/3/12/art_2928_33535.html 3月12日 北京协和医院麻醉科手术室新冠肺炎(COVID-19)疫情期间区域分级防护规范(试行) 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association https://www.cma.org.cn/art/2020/3/12/art_2928_33535.html 3月11日 Protocol for Prevention and Control of COVID-19 (Edition 6) 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/e97a6f76-c07f-4d43-bd73-51067a4fc9f9 3月7日 新型冠状病毒肺炎防控方案(第六版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202003/4856d5b0458141fa9f376853224d41d7.shtml 3月4日 新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第七版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202003/46c9294a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml 2月26日 新型冠状病毒肺炎(NCP)床旁超声心动图检查及远程超声诊断实施方案(第一版) 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association https://www.cma.org.cn/art/2020/2/26/art_2928_33048.html 2月24日 新型冠状病毒肺炎重型、危重型病例诊疗方案(试行第二版) 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association https://www.cma.org.cn/art/2020/2/24/art_2928_32959.html 2月21日 新型冠状病毒肺炎防控方案(第五版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/a5d6f7b8c48c451c87dba14889b30147.shtml 2月19日 新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第六版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/8334a8326dd94d329df351d7da8aefc2.shtml 2月17日 新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控期间养老机构老年人就医指南 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/c26a0ca4a58d47489c5781493b2ac624.shtml 2月14日 新型冠状病毒感染相关ICD代码 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/dcf3333b740f4fabad5f9f908d1fc5b4.shtml 2月8日 新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第五版 修正版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/d4b895337e19445f8d728fcaf1e3e13a.shtml 2月7日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控方案(第四版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/573340613ab243b3a7f61df260551dd4.shtml 2月5日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第五版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202002/3b09b894ac9b4204a79db5b8912d4440.shtml 2月1日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者遗体处置工作指引(试行) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7659/202002/163c26a24057489dbf64dba359c59a5f.shtml 1月28日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控方案(第三版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202001/470b128513fe46f086d79667db9f76a5.shtml 1月28日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎病例转运工作方案(试行) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202001/ccee6ec0942a42a18df8e5ce6329b6f5.shtml 1月27日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第四版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202001/4294563ed35b43209b31739bd0785e67.shtml 1月25日 关于“新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎”诊疗建议方案(V2.0) 中国医学科学院北京协和医院 Peking Union Medical College Hospital, CAMS https://new.qq.com/omn/HLH20200/HLH2020012501009300.html 1月24日 《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗快速指南》 华中科技大学同济医学院附属同济医院专家组 Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of HUST https://xw.qq.com/health/20200124010910/HLH2020012401091000 1月24日 《武汉协和医院处置2019新型冠状病毒感染策略及说明》 华中科技大学同济医学院附属协和医院专家组 Xiehe Hospital, Tongji Medical College of HUST https://www.dxy.cn/bbs/newweb/pc/post/42662254 1月23日 湖北省新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第一版) 湖北省医疗救治专家组 Medical Expert Panel of Hubei Province https://xw.qq.com/cmsid/20200123A0KNOW00 1月23日 医疗机构内新型冠状病毒感染预防与控制技术指南(第一版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202001/b91fdab7c304431eb082d67847d27e14.shtml 1月23日 新型冠状病毒实验室生物安全指南(第二版) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202001/0909555408d842a58828611dde2e6a26.shtml 1月22日 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第三版)(PDF可下载) 国家卫生健康委员会 National Health Commission http://www.nhc.gov.cn/yzygj/s7653p/202001/f492c9153ea9437bb587ce2ffcbee1fa.shtml Epidemic situation 疫情分布 Daily update 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情分布 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://2019ncov.chinacdc.cn/2019-nCoV/ Research articles 研究进展和经典图书 4月2日 COVID-19 Academic Research Communication Platform (English) – Free to read 中华医学会杂志社 CMA Publishing House http://medjournals.cn/COVID-19/index.do 4月2日 新型冠状病毒肺炎科研成果学术交流平台(中文)- 免费阅读 中华医学会杂志社 CMA Publishing House http://medjournals.cn/2019NCP/index.do 2月28日 COVID-19影像表现及研究进展 中华医学会放射学分会青年委员会 Youth Com
mittee, Radiology Branch of Chinese Medical Association https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/MnJyIzobbDQdicAQScG1ow 2月18日 A strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak Biosafety and Health Biosafety and Health https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590053620300161 2月18日 Technical guidance for laboratory testing of 2019-nCoV infection (third edition) Biosafety and Health Biosafety and Health https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590053620300136 2月18日 Laboratory biosafety guide for the novel coronavirus Biosafety and Health Biosafety and Health.

1月25日 中国新型冠状病毒感染病例首批临床数据报告(解读, with link to sourse articles) The Lancet Weichat Official Account The Lancet Weichat Official Account 1月22日 Notes from the Field: An Outbreak of NCIP (2019-nCoV) Infection in China — Wuhan, Hubei Province. [2020-01-22] 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/e3c63ca9-dedb-4fb6-9c1c-d057adb77b57 1月21日 A Novel Coronavirus Genome Identified in a Cluster of Pneumonia Cases — Wuhan, China 2019-2020[2020-01-21] 中国疾病预防控制中心 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/en/article/id/a3907201-f64f-4154-a19e-4253b453d10c 1月21日 引自《默里及纳达尔呼吸医学》,V Courtney Broaddus 主编,李为民、程德云主译,人民卫生出版社,2018 李为民、程德云主译,人民卫生出版社,2018 Elsevier, with content quoted from translation published by PMPH Influenza Pneumonia Coronavirus Patient Education 患者教育 2020.1.24 轻症疑似2019新型冠状病毒患者及密切接触人员如何进行自我管理 北京协和医院呼吸科 Respiratory Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, CAMS http://m.sohu.com/a/368777653_102327.

临床综述:冠状病毒:新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)感染.

3D4Medical 视频揭示新冠病毒从传播到入侵的全过程.

全球冠状病毒研究机构及研究人员分布图.

Because Google is not available in China and various other countries, we are offering a local version of the map, enabling you also to download the data.

爱思唯尔数据揭示全球传染病研究趋势.

全球冠状病毒研究机构及研究人员分布图.

基于爱思唯尔独有的全球最大的引文摘要数据库Scopus.

Because Google is not available in China and various other countries, we are offering a local version of the map, enabling you also to download the data.

Research.

In this section, you can find the following resources:

Journal articles , including coronavirus hubs by The Lancet and Cell Press Book chapters Early-stage research (preprints on SSRN) Infographic: global research trends in infectious disease Resources for drug discovery.

The Lancet Coronavirus Hub.

To assist health workers and researchers working under difficult and dangerous conditions to bring this outbreak to a close, The Lancet created a Coronavirus hub page. This hub brings together new coronavirus content from The Lancet journals as it is published.

Cell Press Coronavirus Resource Hub.

At Cell Press, we recognize the urgent need to quickly share information that can help us better understand the biology of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) and produce a potential vaccine. On our Coronavirus Resource Hub, curated by members of our editorial team, you’ll find our policies for submitting papers related to COVID-19, as well as content about the outbreak as it appears in Cell Press journals.

1Science Coronavirus Research Repository.

1science, acquired by Elsevier in 2018, was created to expand the scope of existing abstracting and analytics databases. It aims to include quality controlled academic and research documents in all disciplines and languages and from all countries. Its core index, 1findr, currently comprises more than 120 million metadata records, including over 30 million links to free full-text articles selected from about 100,000 referred scholarly journals. The Coronavirus Research Repository is a custom extraction from 1findr comprising articles on COVID-19, MERS, SARS and coronaviruses in general.

COVID-19 Clinical Guidance for Global Cardiovascular Clinicians.

JACC Journals and the ACC are working to provide COVID-19 clinical guidance for global cardiovascular clinicians. On this page you will find the recently accepted manuscripts that the JACC Journals’ Editors hope will best inform care decision-making.

Call for papers.

Mathematical Biosciences Virtual Special Issue: Transmission dynamics and control of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This virtual issue welcomes contributions on the use of mathematical, statistical and computational modeling approaches for providing deeper mechanistic insights into the transmission dynamics and control of SARS-CoV-2. Open-source journal HardwareX calls for COVID-19 equipment designs. Papers will be free to publish and free to read.

Content hubs from other publishers.

Elsevier is among various publishers who are making relevant papers freely available. Others include: Springer Nature | Wiley | NEJM | BMJ | American Society for Microbiology | American College of Cardiology| Chongqing VIP Information. Many publishers have also signed the Wellcome Trust Statement committing to share relevant nCoV research and data rapidly and openly.

You can find all these publishers and more on LitCovid — the National Library of Medicine’s curated hub of scientific literature about novel coronavirus. It currently provides access to more than 3,200 articles in PubMed and is being updated daily.

Articles in Elsevier journals.

A selection of articles curated by our Clinical Solutions team.

Below are articles curated by our Clinical Solutions team and directly relevant to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). In addition, Elsevier has made more than 21,000 coronavirus-related articles freely available for six months, commencing in February 2020. We are updating this section continually, and we’ve created categories to make it easier to browse.

Virology.

The Potential Role of Th17 Immune Responses in Coronavirus Immunopathology and Vaccine-induced Immune Enhancement, Commentary, Microbes and Infection (April 17, 2020) Comparative computational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein epitopes in taxonomically related coronaviruses, Microbes and Infection (April 14, 2020) It is too soon to attribute ADE to COVID-19?, Letter to the Editor, Microbes and Infection (April 5, 2020) Contact lens practice in the time of COVID-19, Editorial, Contact Lens and Anterior Eye (March 19, 2020) Predicting the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) utilizing capability as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, Microbes and Infection (March 19, 2020) Novel coronavirus: From discovery to clinical diagnostics, Opinion, Infection, Genetics and Evolution (Received March 2020) Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event, Short communication, Infection, Genetics and Evolution (Received March 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor, Cell (March 4, 2020) Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (March 3, 2020) Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2, Gastroenterology (March 3, 2020) COVID-19: Gastrointestinal manifestations and potential fecal-oral transmission, Gastroenterology (March 3, 2020) Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (Feb 15, 2020) Comparison of different samples for 2019 novel coronavirus detection by nucleic acid amplification tests, Short Communication, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Feb 27 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety, Transfusion Medicine Reviews (Feb 21, 2020) Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—A Quick Overview and Comparison with Other Emerging Viruses, Microbes and Infection (Feb 2020)

View more categories.

Epidemiology.

Virtual Issue on Virus Dispersion, Disinfection and Human Protection, Journal of Hazardous Materials, (April 1, 2020) 1,000,000 cases of COVID-19 outside of China: The date predicted by a simple heuristic, Commentary, Global Epidemiology (March 23, 2020) Propagation analysis and prediction of the COVID-19 Infectious Disease Modelling (April 01, 2020) Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event, Short communication, Infection, Genetics and Evolution (April 2020) Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the diamond Princess Cruises Ship, 2020, Infectious Disease Modelling (March 2020) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (Feb 17, 2020) Novel coronavirus pneumonia emergency in Zhuhai: impact and challenges, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 14, 2020) Novel coronavirus, poor quarantine, and the risk of pandemic, Opinion, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 11, 2020) Novel coronavirus is putting the whole world on alert, Opinion, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 4, 2020) Trend and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Infection (Feb 27, 2020) Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—A Quick Overview and Comparison with Other Emerging Viruses, Microbes and Infection (Feb 2020) Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing, Journal of Infection (Feb 25, 2020) A strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak, Biosafety and Health (Feb 5, 2020) Lessons learned from the 2019-nCoV epidemic on prevention of future infectious diseases, Microbes and Infection (Feb 20, 2020) The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future, Microbes and Infection (Feb 20, 2020) Prospect and application of Internet of Things technology for prevention of SARIs, Clinical eHealth (February 2020) MERS-CoV as an emerging respiratory illness: A review of prevention methods, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (January 2020) The association between domestic train transportation and novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in China from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven correlational report, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (January 2020) Airborne bacterial contaminations in typical Chinese wet market with live poultry trade, Science of the Total Environment (Dec 2016)

Pathophysiology.

The Potential Role of Th17 Immune Responses in Coronavirus Immunopathology and Vaccine-induced Immune Enhancement, Commentary, Microbes and Infection (April 17, 2020) ACE2 – From the renin–angiotensin system to gut microbiota and malnutrition, Microbes and Infection (November 2013)

Clinical presentation.

Clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients: A retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China, Annals of Oncolcology (March 26, 2020) Comparison of Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by COVID-19 and H1N1, Chest (March 26, 2020) Assessing Viral Shedding and Infectivity of Tears in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients, Short Communication, Ophthalmology (March 24, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (March 23, 2020) Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis, Clinica Chimica Acta (March 13, 2020) Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with persistent negative CT findings, European Journal of Radiology (March 12, 2020) The Novel Coronavirus 2019 Epidemic and Kidneys, Kidney International (March 7, 2020) Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Infection (March 5, 2020) Procalcitonin in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis, Letter to the Editor, Clinica Chimica Acta (March 4, 2020) 2019-novel Coronavirus severe adult respiratory distress syndrome in two cases in Italy: An uncommon radiological presentation, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Feb 26 2020) Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing, Journal of Infection (Feb 25, 2020) Clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19):A multi-center study in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang, China, Journal of Infection (Feb 25, 2020) Clinical and computedtomographic imaging features of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, Journal of Infection (Feb 25, 2020)

Diagnosis and testing.

Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?, European Journal of Radiology (March 20, 2020) Measures for diagn Quantitative computed tomography analysis for stratifying the severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (March 6, 2020) Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (March 5, 2020) Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (March 1, 2020) Measures for diagnosing and treating infections by a novel coronavirus responsible for a pneumonia outbreak originating in Wuhan, China, Microbes and Infection (Feb 2020)

Radiology.

COVID-19 pneumonia manifestations at the admission on chest ultrasound, radiographs, and CT: single-center study and comprehensive radiologic literature review, European Journal of Radiology Open (April 4, 2020) High-resolution computed tomography manifestations of COVID-19 infections in patients of different ages, European Journal of Radiology (March 24, 2020) Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?, European Journal of Radiology (March 20, 2020) CT manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019: a retrospective analysis of 73 cases by disease severity, European Journal of Radiology (March 12, 2020) Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with persistent negative CT findings, European Journal of Radiology (March 12, 2020) 2019-novel Coronavirus severe adult respiratory distress syndrome in two cases in Italy: An uncommon radiological presentation, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Feb 26 2020) Clinical and computedtomographic imaging features of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, Journal of Infection (Feb 25, 2020) Coronavirus Outbreak: What the Department of Radiology Should Know, Journal of the American College of Radiology (Feb 19, 2020)

Treatment.

Pharmacology.

The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China, Clinical Immunology (Received April 3, 2020) Highlights of traditional Chinese medicine frontline expert advice in the China national guideline for COVID-19, European Journal of Integrative Medicine (April 3, 2020) Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Anti-Hypertensives (Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Pre-proof, Mayo Clinic Proceedings (March 30, 2020) Traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment, Letter to the Editor, Pharmacological Research (Received March 27, 2020) The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China , Clinical Immunology (March 25, 2020) COVID-19 and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: What Is the Evidence? JAMA (March 24, 2020) Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (March 20, 2020) Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Pharmacological Research (March 20, 2020) Possible COVID-19 Pharmacotherapies and QTc/TdP Liability, Pre-proof, Mayo Clinic Proceedings , (March 25, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (March 23, 2020) TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib, Perspectives, Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (March 11, 2020) Arguments in favor of remdesivir for treating SARS-CoV-2 infections, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (March 5, 2020) Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (March 4, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor, Cell (March 4, 2020) Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (March 4, 2020) Traditional Chinese medicine is a resource for drug discovery against 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Journal of Integrative Medicine (Feb 19, 2020) In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus, Journal of Integrative Medicine (Feb 20, 2020) Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (Feb 15, 2020) Measures for diagnosing and treating infections by a novel coronavirus responsible for a pneumonia outbreak originating in Wuhan, China, Microbes and Infection (Feb 2020) Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases (Feb 12, 2020)

Clinical studies and guidance.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Anti-Hypertensives (Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Pre-proof, Mayo Clinic Proceedings (March 30, 2020) Recommended prophylactic and management strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in transplant recipients Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine (March 27, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (March 23, 2020) Diagnosis and treatment plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 Global Health Journal (March 18, 2020) Interpretation of the diagnosis and treatment plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 Global Health Journal (March 17, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know, Expert Review, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Feb 24, 2020) Watch the related video Integrated infection control strategy to minimize nosocomial infection of corona virus disease 2019 among ENT healthcare workers, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 27, 2020) Clinical Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Epidemic Influenza A (H7N9) Infection: A Hint for COVID-19 Treatment, Engineering , (Feb 2020) Increasing ventilator surge capacity in disasters: Ventilation of four adult-human-sized sheep on a single ventilator with a modified circuit, Resuscitation (April 2008)

Infection control in the healthcare setting.

Preparedness among Ophthalmologists: During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic, Editorial, Ophthalmology (March 31, 2020) MFM Guidance for COVID-19, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (March 19, 2020) COVID-19 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the emergency physician, Visual Journal of Emergency Medicine (Received March 19, 2020) Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents, Review, Journal of Hospital Infection (March 2020) Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (March 3, 2020) COVID-19 in medical personnel: observation from Thailand, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 27, 2020) Integrated infection control strategy to minimize nosocomial infection of corona virus disease 2019 among ENT healthcare workers, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 27, 2020) The non-contact handheld cutaneous infra-red thermometer for fever screening during the COVID-19 global emergency, Letter to the Editor, Journal of Hospital Infection (Feb 21, 2020) Technical guidance for laboratory testing of 2019-nCoV infection (third edition). Biosafety and Health (Feb 5, 2020) Laboratory biosafety guide for the novel coronavirus, Biosafety and Health (Jan 31, 2020)

Public health.

Highlights of traditional Chinese medicine frontline expert advice in the China national guideline for COVID-19, European Journal of Integrative Medicine (April 3, 2020) Preparedness among Ophthalmologists: During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic, Editorial, Ophthalmology (March 31, 2020) Preparing for the COVID-19 Pandemic: Our Experience in New York, Commentary and announcement, Chest (March 25, 2020) At the Epicenter of the Covid-19 Pandemic and Humanitarian Crises in Italy: Changing Perspectives on Preparation and Mitigation, NEJM Catalyst: Innovations in Care Delivery (March 21, 2020) Rapid response to COVID-19 outbreak in Northern Italy: how to convert a classic infectious disease ward into a COVID-19 response centre, Journal of Hospital Infections (March 20, 2020) MFM Guidance for COVID-19, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (March 19, 2020) From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach, One Health (Received March 18, 2020) The Emerging Pandemic of Coronavirus: The Urgent Need for Public Health Leadership, The American Journal of Medicine (March 17, 2020) Palliating a Pandemic: “All Patients Must Be Cared For”, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (Feb 2020) World Health Organization declares Global Emergency: A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), Review, International Journal of Surgery (Feb 26, 2020) The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a one health issue, Editorial Commentary, One Health (June 2020) Ophthalmologists Are More Than Eye Doctors — In Memoriam Li Wenliang, American Journal of Ophthalmology (March 9, 2020) Should, and how can, exercise be done during a coronavirus outbreak? An interview with Dr. Jeffrey A. Woods, Journal of Sport and Health Science (March 2020) Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions, Opinion, Journal of Sport and Health Science (March 2020) The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health — The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (Feb 2020) The association between domestic train transportation and novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in China from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven correlational report, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (January 2020) The next big threat to global health? 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): What advice can we give to travellers? – Interim recommendations January 2020, from the Latin-American society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (January 2020) SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and now the 2019-novel CoV: Have we investigated enough about coronaviruses? – A bibliometric analysis, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (January 2020)

Research from all publishers.

LitCovid is the National Library of Medicine’s curated hub of scientific literature about novel coronavirus. It currently provides access to more than 3,200 articles in PubMed and is being updated daily.

More published research.

Research in JAMA, BMJ, NEJM and more curated by our experts.

Virology.

Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1, Correspondence, NEJM (March 17, 2020) Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19, Research Letter, JAMA (Feb 27, 2020) Evaluation of coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, Journal of Medical Virology (Feb 26, 2020) A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin, unedited manuscript, Nature (Feb 3, 2020) Another Decade, Another Coronavirus, NEJM (Jan 24, 2020) Coronavirus Infections — More Than Just the Common Cold, Viewpoint, JAMA (Jan 2020)

View more categories.

Epidemiology.

Chronic kidney disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, Letter to the Editor, International Urology and Nephrology (March 28, 2020) COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ( March 27, 2020) Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected Mother to Her Newborn, JAMA (March 26, 2020) Antibodies in Infants Born to Mothers With COVID-19 Pneumonia, JAMA (March 26, 2020) Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, JAMA Pediatrics (March 26, 2020) Can SARS-CoV-2 Infection Be Acquired In Utero? More Definitive Evidence Is Needed, JAMA (March 26, 2020) A COVID-19 Transmission within a family cluster by presymptomatic infectors in China, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 23, 2020) COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence, Tobacco Induced Diseases (March 20, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children, Correspondence, NEJM (March 18, 2020) Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Original Investigation, JAMA Internal Medicine (March 13, 2020) Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures, Review, Journal of Medical Virology (March 5, 2020) Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China, Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (February 29, 2020) History is repeating itself: Probable zoonotic spillover as the cause of the 2019 novel Coronavirus Epidemic, Editorial, Le Infezioni in Medicina (March 5, 2020)

Pathophysiology.

The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, Cardiovascular Research (March 30, 2020) Review article: Gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission, Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (March 26, 2020) Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Returning Travelers from Wuhan, Chinadoi, NEJM (March 26, 2020) Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia, NEJM (March 26, 2020) Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 12, 2020) Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice, International Journal of Oral Science (March 3, 2020) Potential Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China, 2020, Emerging Infectious Diseases (May 17, 2020)

Clinical presentation.

Coronavirus Disease 19 Infection Does Not Result in Acute Kidney Injury: An Analysis of 116 Hospitalized Patients from Wuhan, China, American Journal of Nephrology (March 31, 2020) Characteristics of Ocular Findings of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China, JAMA Ophthalmolology (March 31, 2020) Diagnosis and Management of COVID-19 Disease, American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine (March 30, 2020) Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – United States, February 12 – March 16, 2020, MMWR (March 27, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Hubei, China, Current Medical Science (March 24, 2020) Systematic review of COVID-19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults, Acta Paediatrica (March 23, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Cardiovascular Disease, Circulation (March 21, 2020) Epidemiological characteristics of 2143 pediatric patients with 2019 coronavirus disease in China, Pediatrics (March 16, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children, Correspondence, NEJM (March 18, 2020) A case report of neonatal COVID-19 infection in China, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 12, 2020) Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 9, 2020) Novel coronavirus infection and pregnancy, Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology (March 5, 2020) Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures, Review, Journal of Medical Virology (March 5, 2020) Clinical and CT features in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection: Different points from adults, Pediatric Pulmonology (March 5, 2020) Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China, Science China Life Sciences (March 4, 2020) Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series, BMJ (Feb 19, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA (Feb 7, 2020) First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States, NEJM (Jan 31, 2020) A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019, NEJM (Jan 24, 2020)

Diagnosis and testing.

Proposal for international standardization of the use of lung ultrasound for COVID-19 patients; a simple, quantitative, reproducible method, Journal of Ultrasound Medicine (March 30, 2020) SARS-CoV-2-Positive Sputum and Feces After Conversion of Pharyngeal Samples in Patients With COVID-192020, Annals of Internal Medicine (March 30, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Testing, American Journal of Clinical Pathology (March 30, 2020)

Radiology.

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) Progression Course in 17 Discharged Patients: Comparison of Clinical and Thin-Section CT Features During Recovery, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 30, 2020) Clinical and CT features in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection: Different points from adults, Pediatric Pulmonology (March 5, 2020) Hematologic parameters in patients with COVID-19 infection, Commentary, American Journal of Hematology (March 4, 2020) Déjà Vu or Jamais Vu? How the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Experience Influenced a Singapore Radiology Department’s Response to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic, e-View Preprints, American Journal of Roentgenoly (March 4, 2020) Chest Radiographic and CT Findings of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Analysis of Nine Patients Treated in Korea, Korean Journal of Radiology (Feb 26, 2020) 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of COVID-19: a series of four highly suspected cases, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (Feb 22, 2020) Chest CT Findings in Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Relationship to Duration of Infection, Radiology (Feb 20, 2020) Emerging Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Pneumonia, Radiology (Feb 6, 2020) Imaging changes in patients with 2019-nCov, European Radiology (Feb 5, 2020) Chest CT Findings in 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections from Wuhan, China: Key Points for the Radiologist , Reviews and Commentary Editorial, Radiology (Feb 4, 2020) CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Case Series, Radiology (Feb 4, 2020)

Treatment.

Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension, Emerging Microbes and Infections (March 31, 2020) Acetazolamide, Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Rationale for Their Utilization as Adjunctive Countermeasures in the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Cureus (March 30, 2020) COVID-19 treatment by repurposing drugs until the vaccine is in sight, Commentary, Drug Development Research (March 29, 2020) Acetazolamide, Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Rationale for Their Utilization as Adjunctive Countermeasures in the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Cureus (March 20, 2020) Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 , International Journal of Biological Sciences (March 15, 2020) Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 , International Journal of Biological Sciences (March 15, 2020)

Pharmacology.

Coalition: Advocacy for prospective clinical trials to test the post-exposure potential of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19, Editorial, One Health (April 4, 2020) COVID-19 and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: What Is the Evidence? JAMA (March 24, 2020) Updated approaches against SARS-CoV-2, Review article, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, (March 23, 2020) Should COVID-19 Concern Nephrologists? Why and to What Extent? The Emerging Impasse of Angiotensin Blockade, Nephron (March 23, 2020) In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 9, 2020) Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology (March 4, 2020) Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics, Commentary, Drug Development Research (March 4, 2020)

Clinical studies and guidance.

Effect of intermittent or continuous feed on muscle wasting in critical illness: a phase II clinical trial, CHEST (April 2, 2020) At the ‘heart’ of the COVID-19 outbreak: early cardiac implications and mitigating strategies, Singapore Medical Journal (March 31, 2020) Just the Facts: Airway management during the COVID-19 pandemic, CJEM (March 30, 2020) Perioperative COVID-19 Defense. An Evidence-Based Approach for Optimization of Infection Control and Operating Room Management, Anesthesia & Analgesia (March 26, 2020) Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Medicine (March 28, 2020) Preparing for the Most Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: The Potential Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Viewpoint, JAMA (Feb 19, 2020) A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19, NEJM (March 18, 2020) Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19, JAMA (March 13, 2020) Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 9, 2020) Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): a guide for UK GPs, BMJ (March 5, 2020) Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus, World Journal of Pediatrics (Feb 5, 2020) 2019 Novel Coronavirus — Important Information for Clinicians, Viewpoint, JAMA Network (Feb 5, 2020)

Infection control in the healthcare setting.

Preliminary Findings of Control of Dispersion of Aerosols and Droplets during High Velocity Nasal Insufflation Therapy Using a Simple Surgical Mask: Implications for High Flow Nasal, Research Letter, CHEST (April 2, 2020) Unprecedented Solutions for Extraordinary Times: Helping Long-Term Care Settings Deal with the COVID-19 Pandemic, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (March 30, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine, Journal of Dental Research (March 12, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Protecting Hospitals From the Invisible, Annals of Internal Medicine (March 11, 2020) Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS, Clinical Infectious Diseases (March 9, 2020) Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures, Review, Journal of Medical Virology (March 5, 2020) Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice, International Journal of Oral Science (March 3, 2020) Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient, Research Letter, JAMA (March 4, 2020)

Public health.

Coalition: Advocacy for prospective clinical trials to test the post-exposure potential of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19, Editorial, One Health (April 4, 2020) Emergency response to the outbreak of COVID-19: the Korean case , Letter to the Editor, Microbes and Infection (April 8, 2020) Roadblocks to Infection Prevention Efforts in Healthcare SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Response, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness (March 30, 2020) Covid-19 and community mitigation strategies in a pandemic, Editorials, BMJ (March 17, 2020) Priorities for the US Health Community Responding to COVID-19, Viewpoint, JAMA (March 3, 2020) Emergent Strategies for the Next Phase of COVID-19, Infection & Chemotherapy (Feb 25, 2020) Discussing the ABCs of Health Security — Antibiotic Resistance, Biothreats, and Coronavirus, Medical News & Perspectives, JAMA (Feb 19, 2020) Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020, Infectious Disease Modelling , Feb 2020 IDM editorial statement on the 2019-nCoV, Infectious Disease Modelling , Feb 2020 An updated estimation of the risk of transmission of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), Infectious Disease Modelling , Feb 2020 Novel coronavirus infection during the 2019-2020 epidemic: preparing intensive care units-the experience in Sichuan Province, China, Intensive Care Medicine (Feb 5, 2020) A Novel Coronavirus Emerging in China — Key Questions for Impact Assessment, NEJM (Jan 24, 2020)

Mental/behavioral health.

Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019, JAMA Network Open (March 23, 2020)

Book chapters.

Disaster Epidemiology and Surveillance, Chapter 27, Jekel’s Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health , 5th Edition (Elsevier, 2020) Mechanical Ventilation, Chapter 101, Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Edition (Elsevier, 2016) Noninvasive Ventilation, Chapter 102, Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Edition (Elsevier, 2016) Respiratory Support and Artificial Ventilation, Chapter 31, Nunn’s Applied Respiratory Physiology, Eighth Edition (Elsevier, 2017) Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan China, 2019-20, Update to Chapter 155, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Ninth Edition (Elsevier, 2020) Coronaviruses, Including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Chapter 155, Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Ninth Edition (Elsevier, 2020) Viral Infections, Chapter 32, Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, Sixth Edition (Elsevier, 2016) Coronaviruses, Chapter 31, Fenner and White’s Medical Virology (Fifth Edition (Elsevier’s Academic Press, 2017)

Early-stage research.

Preprints on SSRN.

Emerging and rapidly evolving healthcare emergencies necessitate the quick dissemination of research. The growing role of preprints, or early-stage research, was acknowledged in the Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks as a way of “accelerating the dissemination of scientific findings to support responses to infectious disease outbreaks.”

SSRN, Elsevier’s world-leading platform devoted to the rapid worldwide dissemination of early-stage research, is committed to making authors’ coronavirus related research available immediately. Research on SSRN is free to download and upload. It is important to note that these papers have not benefited from the pivotal role of the peer-review process, which validates and improves the quality of final published journal articles.

View more preprints.

Predicting Clinical Needs Derived from the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Spain, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) An Evaluation on the Frequencies of Underlying Diseases and Symptoms Along with the Mortality Rate of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) References of ‘Successful Experience’ of Epidemic Prevention and Control in Six Provinces of China to ‘Global Epidemic’, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Associations of Clinical Characteristics and Antiviral Drugs with Viral RNA Clearance in Patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) The Stress and Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Medical Workers at the Fever Clinic of a Tertiary General Hospital in Beijing: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) The Relationship Between Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors Among Brazilians in Quarantine Due to COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Management Strategy of Corona Virus Disease-2019 in Quarantine Zones Outside Hospitals: Analysis of 1232 Cases from a District in Wuhan, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) U-Shaped Association Between Baseline Neutrophil Count (bNC) And COVID-19-Related Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Chinese Patient Diagnosed with COVID-19 Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) COVID-19: A Systematic Analysis of the Evidences, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Effectiveness of Multidimensional Measures to Stop the Spread of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Wuhan’s Experience, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Association of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on COVID-19-Related Outcome, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Predictive Value of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio(NLR) for Diagnosis and Worse Clinical Course of the COVID-19: Findings from Ten Provinces in China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Assessment of the Mental Health of Front Line Healthcare Workers in a COVID-19 Epidemic Epicenter of China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Should We Quickly Get Out of Confinement to Face COVID-19 Pandemic? Estimating the Medical Outcomes of Different Public Health Strategies Using a Robust Microsimulation Agent-Based Model, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Regulation and Trust: A Social Science Perspective on COVID-19 Mortality, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Clinical Features Predicting Mortality Risk in Older Patients with COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) An Efficient COVID-19 Prediction Model Validated with the Cases of China, Italy, and Spain: Total or Partial Lockdowns?, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Blood Glucose Is a Representative of the Clustered Indicators of Multi-Organ Injury for Predicting Mortality of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications in Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Systematic Review, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Emergency Surgery Patients-Infected COVID-19 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) Spotlight of Remdesivir in Comparison with Ribavirin, Favipiravir, Oseltamivir and Umifenovir in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic, Preprints with The Lancet (April 14, 2020) The MERS-CoV Receptor DPP4 as a Candidate Binding Target of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, Cell Press Sneak Peek (April 13, 2020) Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Antiviral Agents Used to Treat SARS-CoV-2 and Their Potential Interaction with Drugs and Other Supportive Measures: a Comprehensive Review by the PK/PD of Anti-Infectives Study Group of the European Society of Antimicrobial Agents (April 10, 2020) Correlation of Influenza vaccination and the Covid-19 severity (April 10, 2020) Infection Control and Virological Assessment of the First Cluster of Covid-19 in Northern Germany (April 10, 2020) Inactivation of Coronavirus with Ultraviolet Irradiation: What? How? Why? (April 10, 2020) Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of 50 Death Cases with Covid-2019 in the Philippines: A Retrospective Review (April 10, 2020) Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Antiviral Agents Used to Treat SARS-CoV-2 and Their Potential Interaction with Drugs and Other Supportive Measures: a Comprehensive Review by the PK/PD of Anti-Infectives Study Group of the European Society of Antimicrobial Agents (April 10, 2020) Correlation of Influenza vaccination and the Covid-19 severity (April 10, 2020) Infection Control and Virological Assessment of the First Cluster of Covid-19 in Northern Germany (April 10, 2020) Inactivation of Coronavirus with Ultraviolet Irradiation: What? How? Why? (April 10, 2020) Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of 50 Death Cases with Covid-2019 in the Philippines: A Retrospective Review (April 10, 2020) Do latitude and ozone concentration predict Covid-2019 cases in 34 countries? (April 9, 2020) Confronting COVID-19: Surging Critical Care Capacity in Italy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) The Risks of COVID-19 Spread Rapidly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Brazilian Scenario, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) An Effective Off-Campus Triage System During the COVID-19 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Modeling the Evolution Trajectory of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: Experience and Suggestions, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Potential antiviral mechanism of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and further extrapolation to celecoxib (Celebrex) for future clinical trials. (April 7, 2020) Potential antiviral mechanism of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and further extrapolation to celecoxib (Celebrex) for future clinical trials.(April 7, 2020) The Wisdom of Treating Covid19 As an Hyperallergenic Response. Mast Cell and Cytokine Storm Related Morbidity – Perspective, Review and Hypothesis (April 6, 2020) Diffusion of Covid-19 Outbreaks: The Interaction between Air Pollution-to-Human and Human-to-Human Transmission Dynamics in Hinterland Regions with Cold Weather and Low Average Wind Speed (April 6, 2020) The Wisdom of Treating Covid19 As an Hyperallergenic Response. Mast Cell and Cytokine Storm Related Morbidity – Perspective, Review and Hypothesis (April 6, 2020) Diffusion of Covid-19 Outbreaks: The Interaction between Air Pollution-to-Human and Human-to-Human Transmission Dynamics in Hinterland Regions with Cold Weather and Low Average Wind Speed (April 6, 2020) An Arima Model to Forecast the Spread of Covid-2019 Epidemic in Italy (April 4, 2020) An Arima Model to Forecast the Spread of Covid-2019 Epidemic in Italy (April 4, 2020) Slower COVID-19 case and death count growth at higher irradiances and temperatures (April 3, 2020) Slower COVID-19 case and death count growth at higher irradiances and temperatures (April 3, 2020) A Parsimonious Identification of SARS-CoV-2 and Host Interactions (April 2, 2020) A Parsimonious Identification of SARS-CoV-2 and Host Interactions (April 2, 2020) What We Should Know About SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Early-Stage Government Control of COVID-19 Limits Spreading and Reduces Fatality by Narrowing the Outbreak-Phase Duration: An Epidemiological Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Severity Detection For the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients Using a Machine Learning Model Based on the Blood and Urine Tests, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Risk Factors Associated with Hospital-Acquired Infections for COVID-19 Patients in ICU, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Children Are Unlikely to Have Been the Primary Source of Household SARS-CoV-2 Infections, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Clinical and CT Features of Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Differe
nt Age Groups, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Association between Peripheral Lymphocyte Count and the Mortality Risk of COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Comparison of Confirmed COVID-19 with SARS and MERS Cases – Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Findings, Radiographic Signs and Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Comparison of Clinical Features between Critically and Non-Critically Ill Patients In SARS and COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Physician Deaths from Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Clinical Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Patients with Severe or Critically Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Effects of Sex, Age and Comorbidities on the Risk of Infection and Death Associated with COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis of 47807 Confirmed Cases, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Modes of Contact and Risk of Transmission in COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study 4950 Close Contact Persons in Guangzhou of China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) COVID-19 Infection Process in Italy and Spain: Are the Data Talking?, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) The Application of Temporary Ark Hospitals in Controlling COVID-19 Spread: The Experiences of One Temporary Ark Hospital, Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) A Retrospective Study of 186 Patients Reveals the Strongest Immunity in the Early Two Years of Life Against Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Diarrhea in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: Clinical Characteristics, Outcomes and Implications, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Neutralizing Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a COVID-19 Recovered Patient Cohort and Their Implications, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Prevalence of Insufficient Physical Activity, Sedentary Screen Time and Emotional Well-Being During the Early Days of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: A National Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Severity of Respiratory Failure and Outcome of Patients Needing a Ventilatory Support in the Emergency Department During Italian Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak: Preliminary Data on the Role of Helmet CPAP and Non-Invasive Ventilation, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Analysis of Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children with Mild COVID-19 and Discussion on the Clinical Significance of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Blood Glucose Levels in Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes During COVID-19 Outbreak: A Retrospective Study in a Single Center, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers: A Retrospective Analysis and Model Simulations of a Nosocomial Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Countries with High Registered Nurse (RN) Concentrations Observe Reduced Mortality Rates of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Factors Associated with Early Invasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Risk Factors for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Among Iranian Patients: Who Was More Vulnerable?, Preprints with The Lancet (April 9, 2020) Patients with Cancer Appear More Vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2: A Multi-Center Study During the COVID-19 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Novel Insights of Illness Evolution And Mortality Risk Profiles for the Non-Survivors with COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin Could Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Protease: Preliminary In Silico Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) From a Single Host to Global Spread. The Global Mobility Based Modelling of the COVID-19 Pandemic Implies Higher Infection and Lower Detection Rates than Current Estimates, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Dose-Response Association between Risk Factors and Incidence of COVID-19 in 325 Hospitalized Patients: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 1663 Hospitalized Patients Infected with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Evaluation of the Risk Prediction Tools for Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Comprehensive Comparisons to Demonstrate Immunosuppressed Status and Cardiovascular Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 42 Deaths Due to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Two Potential Novel SARS-CoV-2 Entries, TMPRSS2 and IFITM3, in Healthy Individuals and Cancer Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (April 8, 2020) Democracy and Mobility: A Preliminary Analysis of Global Adherence to Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for COVID-19 (April 7, 2020) The Correlation between BCG Immunization Coverage and the Severity of COVID-19 (April 7, 2020) Mode of Delivery and Clinical Findings in COVID-19 Infected Pregnant Women in Northern Italy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 7, 2020) Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 in China: A Multicenter Retrospective Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 7, 2020) Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Diagnosed in Hospital Haematology Wards in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 7, 2020) High Incidence of Asymptomatic Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Chongqing, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Digestive Involvement of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: Need Attention on the ‘Gut-Type’ in the Novel Coronaviral Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcomes of 218 Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective, Multicenter Study Based on Clinical Classification, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Social Support Protects Chinese Medical Staff from Suffering Psychological Symptoms in COVID-19 Defense, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Predictors of Mortality in Wuhan, China: A Single-Centered Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Analysis of Risk Factors for the Thromboembolic Events from 88 Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Report, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Potential Predictors for Early Invasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Estimating the R 0 of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Health Systems: An Update on Transmissibility at the Country Level, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) COVID-19 Italian and Europe Epidemic Evolution: A SEIR Model with Lockdown-Dependent Transmission Rate Based on Chinese Data, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Development and External Validation of a Prognostic Multivariable Model on Admission for Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Isolation and Contact Tracing Can Tip the Scale To Containment of COVID-19 In Populations with Social Distancing, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Clinical Features and Risk Factors for the Severity of Inpatients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Comparative Analysis of Early Dynamic Trends in Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: A Modeling Framework, Preprints with The Lancet (April 6, 2020) Matrix Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Dynamic Observation of Immunological Features in 90 Cases of COVID-19,
Preprints with The Lancet (April 2, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 74 Children Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Family Clusters in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 2, 2020) Evolutionary Analysis of SARS-2-CoV: How Mutation of Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) Could Affect Viral Autophagy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 2, 2020) Lessons After the Early Management of the COVID-19 Outbreak in a Pediatric Transplant and Hemato-Oncology Center Embedded within a COVID-19 Dedicated Hospital in Lombardia, Italy. Estote Parati. (Be Ready.), Preprints with The Lancet (April 2, 2020) Elevated Serum IgM Levels Indicate Poor Outcome in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case-Control Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Development and Internal Validation of a Nomogram for Predicting 30-Day Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Predictive Factors of Transmission During Endotracheal Intubation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Prediction of the Clinical Outcome of COVID-19 patients Using T Lymphocyte Subsets with 340 Cases from Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study and a Web Visualization Tool, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Are Ocular Symptoms Common in Patients with COVID-19?, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Mathematical Models for Devising the Optimal SARS-CoV-2 Eradication in China, South Korea, Iran, and Italy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Multi-Organ Damage of Critically Ill Patients with Hyoxemia Affected by SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Predicting the Spread of the COVID-19 Across Cities in China with Population Migration and Policy Intervention, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Obesity and COVID-19 Severity in a Designated Hospital in Shenzhen, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Nomogram to Predict SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Leucocyte Subsets Effectively Predict the Clinical Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case-Control Study, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Modelling and Predicting the Spatio-Temporal Spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Epidemiology and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in South Korea, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Redefined Epidemiological Model Predicts COVID-19 Spread in Mainland China and South Korea, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Oxygen Metabolism Score Directed Respiratory Support for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 85 Patients Infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Guangxi, China, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Caution on Kidney Dysfunctions of COVID-19 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Accurate Classification System for Patients with COVID-19 Based on Prognostic Nomograms, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) ACE2 and TMPRSS2 Variants and Expression as Candidates to Sex and Country Differences in COVID-19 Severity in Italy, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Assessing the Potential Impact of COVID-19 in Brazil: Mobility, Morbidity and the Burden on the Health Care System, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Detecting SARS-CoV-2 at Point of Care: Preliminary Data Comparing Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to PCR (April 1, 2020) Re-Analysis of the Relative Transmissibility of Asymptomatic Cases among Close Contacts (April 1, 2020) Social Support Protects Chinese Medical Staff from Suffering Psychological Symptoms in COVID-19 Defense, Preprints with The Lancet (April 1, 2020) Effects of Chinese Strategies for Controlling the Growth Speed of the Cumulative Confirmed Cases of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Predicting COVID-19 Malignant Progression with AI Techniques, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Radiographic Presentation of COVID-19: A Systematic Review, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) The Role of Information Credibility in Emotional Responses and Engagement in Self-Protective Behaviour within Days of the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) The Attack Rate of the COVID-19 in a Year (March 31, 2020) Possibilities for Coronavirus (COVID 19) – the Perspectives (March 31, 2020) Coping Style, Social Support and Psychological Distress in the General Chinese Population in the Early Stages of the COVID-2019 Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Kidney Dysfunctions of COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Higher Death Rates in the Italian COVID-19 Outbreak: A Comparative Modelling Analysis of 8,342 Italy and 44,672 China Cases, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Association Between Quarantined Living Circumstances and Perceived Stress in Wuhan City During the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Rapid, Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Identifying and Correcting Bias from Time- and Severity- Dependent Reporting Rates in the Estimation of the COVID-19 Case Fatality Rate, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Infection Control of 2019 Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Wuhan, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Clinico-Radiological Features and Outcomes in Pregnant Women with COVID-19: Compared with Age-Matched Non-Pregnant Women, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany Resulting from a Single Travel-Associated Primary Case, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in 2019 Novel Coronavirus: A Meta-Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Cardiac Injury Description of 419 Cases of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 and Establishment of a Disease Risk Prediction Model, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients in Shiyan City of Hubei Province, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Clinical Features and Predictors for Patients with Severe SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Detection of 2019-nCov in Saliva and Characterization of Oral Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and CT Manifestations of 143 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outside Wuhan: A Multi-Center Study in Taizhou City, Zhejiang, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Assessing SARS-CoV-2 RNA Levels and Lymphocyte/T Cell Counts in COVID-19 Patients Revealed Initial Immune Status of Patients as a Major Determinant of Disease Severity, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Focusing on the Treatment of COVID-19: A Comprehensive Analysis of 226 Trials Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov and ChiCTR, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Estimation of Time Dependent Reproduction Number for the Ongoing COVID-2019 Pandemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) The Impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 Outbreak on Chinese Residents’ Mental Health, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Association Between Age and Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Extended SIR Prediction of the Epidemics Trend of COVID-19 in Italy and Compared with Hunan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 31, 2020) Estimating Instant Fatality Rate of COVID-19 in China, Preprints with T
he Lancet (March 31, 2020) Environmental Concern Regarding the Effect of Humidity and Temperature on SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Survival: Fact or Fiction (March 30, 2020) Understanding the Nature of Variations in Structural Sequences coding for Coronavirus Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleocapsid Proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (March 30, 2020) The Current State of COVID-19 in Australia: Importation and Spread, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) Anxiety and Depression Survey of Chinese Medical Staff Before and During COVID-19 Defense, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) What is Required to Prevent a Second Major Outbreak of the Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 Upon Lifting the Metropolitan-Wide Quarantine of Wuhan City, China: A Mathematical Modelling Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) The Virological and Epidemiological Features of COVID-19 in Anhui, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) (March 30, 2020) Estimating COVID-19 Case Fatality Rate in the Middle of the Outbreak: Deadlier than Previously Estimated, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) Retrospective Analysis of COVID-19 Outbreak Caused by Administrative Actions of Wuhan Authorities: Mistakes Should Be Avoided in Other Country, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) Study of the Lymphocyte Change Between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Pneumonia Cases Suggesting Other Factors Besides Uncontrolled Inflammation Contributed to Multi-Organ Injury, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) Positive Epstein-Barr Virus Detection in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) The Role of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 in the Gastrointestinal Infection Risk and Potential Fecal Oral-Transmission Route of 2019-nCoV, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) The Variation Analysis of Clinical, Biological and Epidemiological Characteristics Among the COVID-19 Confirmed Patients with Different Clinical Staging, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) A Tempo-Geographic Analysis of Global COVID-19 Epidemic Outside of China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 30, 2020) COVID-19: Projecting the Impact in Rohingya Refugee Camps and Beyond, (March 26, 2020) Large-Scale Ligand-Based Virtual Screening for SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitors Using Deep Neural Networks, (March 26, 2020) The Abnormal ACE2 Expression Correlated with Immune Infiltration May Worsen Progression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in UCEC and KIRP, Preprints with The Lancet (March 26, 2020) Self-Reported Depression of Cancer Patients Under 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pandemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 26, 2020) The Impact of School Closure for COVID-19 on the US Healthcare Workforce and the Net Mortality Effects, Preprints with The Lancet (March 26, 2020) The Research of Mental Health Status Among Medical Personnel in China: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 26, 2020) Tropism of the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Human Respiratory Tract: An Analysis in Ex Vivo and In Vitro Cultures, Preprints with The Lancet (March 25, 2020) The First Report of the Prevalence of COVID-19 in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Patients in the Core Epidemic Area of China: A Multicentre, Cross-Sectional Survey, Preprints with The Lancet (March 25, 2020) The Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Interfered with Influenza in Wuhan, Preprints with The Lancet (March 25, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 25, 2020) Decreased B Cells on Admission was Associated with Prolonged Virus Shedding from Respiratory Tract in Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Case Control Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 25, 2020) Individual variation in infectiousness of coronavirus 2019 implies difficulty in control (March 23, 2020) Overly Exuberant Innate Immune Response to Sars-Cov-2 Infection, Cell Press Sneak Peek (March 24, 2020) Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients with Clinical Outcome During Epidemic Ongoing Outbreak in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Psychological State of College Students During COVID-19 Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Transmission Routes of SARS-CoV-2: Based on the Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 29 Cases in Jinan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Multicenter Development and Validation of a Novel Risk Nomogram for Early Prediction of Severe 2019-Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) COVID-19 Wenzhou Community Based Isolation Strategy for Controlling the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Transmission Dynamics of Covid-19 in Mainland China: Impact of Public Health Control Measures, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Prediction of the Number of New Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Using a Social Media Search Index, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Quality Assessment of the Clinical Trial Protocols Regarding Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) The Prediction for Development of COVID-19 in Global Major Epidemic Areas Through Empirical Trends in China by Utilizing State Transition Matrix Model, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Respiratory Failure Among Patients with COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province, China: A Multicentre Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Epidemiological Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Province Outside of Wuhan, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 545 Cases Confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Stadium Cabin Hospital, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Peripheral Blood CD4+ Cells Are Associated with Increased Risk for 2019-nCoV Infection, But Not CD3+ and CD8+ Cells, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Characteristics of Critically Ill COVID-19 Pneumonia: Clinical, Radiological and Pathological, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Infection Causes Dyslipidemia and Increases Levels of Cancer Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Long-Term Infection of SARS-CoV-2 Evoked a Potential CD4+ T Cell Differentiation in Non-Critical Pneumonia Patients: A Prospective Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Features of 200 Hospitalized Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Yichang, China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) The Effect of Control Strategies that Reduce Social Mixing on Outcomes of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Predicting COVID-19 Using Hybrid AI Model, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Exploring the Law of Development and Prognostic Factors of Common and Severe COVID-19: A Retrospective Case-Control Study in 122 Patients with Complete Course of Disease, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Use of a Community-Based Cohort for Rapid and Repeated Assessments of Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviours During the Evolving COVID-19 Outbreak in Singapore, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Impact of Self-Imposed Prevention Measures and Short-Term Government Intervention on Mitigating and Delaying a COVID-19 Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Health, Distress and Life Satisfaction of People in China One Month into the COVID-19 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Trend of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Epidemic in China After the Lockdown of Wuhan City on January 23, 2020, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Clinical Strategies of Obstetric Emergency and Changes of Delivery Under COVID-19 Epidemic Situation: A Retrospective Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Imported and Local Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hainan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Prevalence of Acute Kidney Injury in Severe and Critical COVID-19 Patients in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Obstetrics in
the Time of Coronavirus: A Tertiary Maternity Centre’s Preparations and Experience During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of 31 Cases with Covid-19 Diagnosed in Haematology Units in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 24, 2020) Detection of 2019-nCoV in Saliva and Characterization of Oral Symptoms in COVID-19 Patients (March 19, 2020) Retrospective search for SARS-CoV-2 in human faecal metagenomes (March 23, 2020) Investigating the Cases of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in China Using Dynamic Statistical Techniques (March 23, 2020) Clinical Management of Children with an Epidemiological History of COVID-19: A Report on a Single Center of a General Hospital in Shenzhen, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 20, 2020) Diabetic Patients with COVID-19, Characteristics and Outcome: A Two-Centre, Retrospective, Case Control Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 20, 2020) Human Mobility Restrictions and the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China (March 23, 2020) Modelling-Based Evaluation of the Effect of Quarantine Control by the Chinese Government in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Clinical Features of Stool SARS-CoV-2 RNA Positive in 137 COVID-19 Patients in Taizhou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Clinical Features and a Simple Model for Predicting the Mortality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients on Admission, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Short Term Outcomes and Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Potential Predictors for Disease Progression and Medication Evaluation of 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Epidemical and Clinical Characteristics of 165 Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Fujian Province, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) The Desynchrony between Clinical Course and RT-PCR Test Results in Patients with COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia During the Treatment in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Multiple Risk Factors of Depression and Anxiety in Medical Staffs: A Cross-Sectional Study at the Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Psychological Impact and Predisposing Factors of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on General Public in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Current Treatment of Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 Outside Wuhan, China: A Multicenter, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Comparison of Chest CT Images Featured with Ground Grass Opacity between COVID-19 Pneumonia and Early-Stage Lung Cancer in Wuhan,China: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Early and Critical Care in Severe Patients with COVID-19 Infection in Jiangsu Province, China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Analysis of Death Risk Factors Among 200 COVID-19 Patients in Wuhan, China: A Hospital-Based Case-Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 23, 2020) Assessment of COVID-19 Mass Testing: The Case of South Korea (March 18, 2020) Social Cohesion vs COVID-19 (March 18, 2020) Will Coronavirus Pandemic Diminish by Summer? (March 17, 2020) A Novel Triage Tool of Artificial Intelligence Assisted Diagnosis Aid System for Suspected COVID-19 Pneumonia in Fever Clinics, Preprints with The Lancet (March 19, 2020) Public Activities Preceding the Onset of Acute Respiratory Infection Syndromes in Adults in England – Implications for the Use of Social Distancing to Control Pandemic Respiratory Infections, Preprints with The Lancet (March 19, 2020) Multicenter Development and Validation of a Novel Risk Nomogram for Early Prediction of Severe 2019-Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (March 19, 2020) High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19 (March 19, 2020) The role of environmental factors on transmission rates of the COVID-19 outbreak: An initial assessment in two spatial scales (March 19, 2020) The Influence of Efficacy Beliefs on Interpersonal Loneliness Among Front-Line Healthcare Workers During the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in China: A Cross-Sectional Study (March 19, 2020) A Poisson Autoregressive Model to Understand COVID-19 Contagion Dynamics (March 19, 2020) Combating the 2019-Ncov: Management Guidelines of Square Cabin Hospitals in Wuhan, China (March 19, 2020) Viral Invasion and Type I Interferon Response Characterize the Immunophenotypes during Covid-19 Infection (March 19, 2020) Caution on plasma cytokine findings in 2019 novel coronavirus cases (March 19, 2020) Geo-Temporal, Network Properties of the Chinese COVID-19 Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Clinical Features of 11 COVID-19 Patients with History of Thoracotomy: A Descriptive Study in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) The Response of the Government’s Emergency System to the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: A Retrospective Comparative Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Mental Health Status of Doctors and Nurses During COVID-19 Epidemic in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Epidemiological and Transmission Patterns of Pregnant Women with 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Non-Severe vs Severe Symptomatic COVID-19: 104 Cases from the Outbreak on the Cruise Ship ‘Diamond Princess’ in Japan, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Clinical Findings of 100 Mild Cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Assessment of Public Attention, Risk Perception, Emotional and Behavioural Responses to the COVID-19 Outbreak: Social Media Surveillance in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Follow-Up Study of 131 COVID-19 Discharged Patients: Is the Current Chinese Discharge Criteria Reliable?, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Effectiveness of Isolation and Contact Tracing for Containment and Slowing Down a COVID-19 Epidemic: A Modelling Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) A Current Emerging Respiratory Infection: Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis and Treatments of COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Viral Load Dynamics and Clinical Disease Severity in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Epidemiologic Features and Clinical Findings of COVID-19-Infected Patients in Suzhou, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Peripheral Blood CD4+ Cells are Reduced in 2019-nCoV Infection, But Not CD3+ and CD8+ Cells, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) Hand and Respiratory Hygiene Practices and the Risk and Transmission of Human Coronavirus Infections in a UK Community Cohort, Preprints with The Lancet (March 18, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Enriched in Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Cell Press Sneak Peek (March 17, 2020) The Effects of Border Control and Quarantine Measures on Global Spread of COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) A High Efficient Hospital Emergency Responsive Mode Is the Key of Successful Treatment of 100 COVID-19 Patients in Zhuhai, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) An Updated Trend Analysis Representing the Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in 16 Cities of Hubei Province, China Using Logistic S-Curve Model, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) The Transmission Dynamics of SARS-COV-2 in China: Modeling Study and the Impact of Public Health Interventions, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) Confusion and Thinking on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Negative RT-PCR Results for SARS-CoV-2, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) Medication Patterns
and Disease Progression Among 165 Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China: A Single-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 77 Novel Coronavirus 2019 Infected Patients with Respiratory Failure in the Terminal Stage in Wuhan, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) Geo-Temporal Distribution of 1,688 Chinese Healthcare Workers Infected with COVID-19 in Severe Conditions – A Secondary Data Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) Emergency Responses to COVID-19 Outbreak: Experiences and Lessons from a General Hospital in Nanjing, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 17, 2020) More Effective Strategies are Required to Strengthen Public Awareness of COVID-19: Evidence from Google Trends, Preprints with The Lancet (March 12, 2020) The Effectiveness of Quarantine to Control the Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Rapid Review, Preprints with The Lancet (March 12, 2020) Visualizing the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Children: What We Learn from Patients at Wuhan Children’s Hospital, Preprints with The Lancet (March 12, 2020) Precautions Are Needed for COVID-19 Patients with Coinfection of Common Respiratory Pathogens, Preprints with The Lancet (March 12, 2020) Temperature and Latitude Analysis to Predict Potential Spread and Seasonality for COVID-19 (March 9, 2020) Mathematical Recommendations to Fight Against COVID-19 (March 9, 2020) Clinical Hallmarks of 13 COVID-19 Patients Revealing SAA Biomarker, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infected Pneumonia with Diarrhea, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) The Potential Role of IL-6 in Monitoring Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Characteristics of Respiratory Virus Infection During the Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Beijing, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Dynamic Profile of RT-PCR Findings from 301 COVID-19 Patients in Wuhan, China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Changsha, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Findings of Acute Pulmonary Embolism in COVID-19 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Clinical Findings of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Jiangsu Province, China: A Retrospective, Multi-Center Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Imaging Features in COVID-19 Patients: Analysis of Data from Patients in Non-Pandemic Areas, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) Epidemic Features and Control of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Wenzhou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 10, 2020) The Prevalence and Influencing Factors for Anxiety in Medical Workers Fighting COVID-19 in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Preprints with The Lancet (March 6, 2020) The Value of Early Response by Surrounding Areas of Epidemic Center Hubei During COVID-2019 Outbreak in China: A Quasi-Experiment Analysis (March 6, 2020) Clinical Features of COVID-19-Related Liver Damage, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Clinical and Laboratory Factors Predicting the Prognosis of Patients with COVID-19: An Analysis of 127 Patients in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Features of 2019-nCoV Acute Respiratory Disease Cases in Chongqing Municipality, China: A Retrospective, Descriptive, Multiple-Center Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Evaluation of the Clinical Characteristics of Suspected or Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 During Home Care with Isolation: A New Retrospective Analysis Based on O2O, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Scarce Health-Care Resources and Higher Case-Fatality Rates Early in Epidemic: Analysis of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Tianmen, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Characteristics and Associations with Severity in COVID-19 Patients: A Multicentre Cohort Study from Jiangsu Province, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020)- The Epidemiological Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) in Jingmen, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes of Women with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Preliminary Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Impact of Wuhan’s Epidemic Prevention Policy on the Outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Impact of Population Movement on the Spread of 2019-nCoV in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Temporal Changes of CT Findings in 90 Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Clinical and CT Imaging Features of the COVID-19 Pneumonia: Focus on Pregnant Women and Children, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Clinical Features and Treatment of 221 Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 in Children Compared with Adults Outside of Hubei Province in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 5, 2020) Transportation, Germs, Culture: A Dynamic Graph Model of COVID-19 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Mental Health Status and Coping Strategy of Medical Workers in China During the COVID-19 Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Modelling and Prediction of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Spreading in China Incorporating Human Migration Data, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) The Effect of Early Response During COVID-2019 Outbreak: A Quasi Experiment, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in 305 Patients with COVID-19: A Cohort Study in Wuhan China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 4, 2020) The Effects of Border Control and Quarantine Measures on Global Spread of COVID-19 (March 6, 2020) Current Status of Global Research on Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A Bibliometric Analysis and Knowledge Mapping (March 4, 2020) Caution: Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients Are Changing at Admission, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Deep Learning-Based Quantitative Computed Tomography Model in Predicting the Severity of COVID-19: A Retrospective Study in 196 Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Clinical Features of 85 Fatal Cases of COVID-19 from Wuhan: A Retrospective Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Application and Optimization of RT-PCR in Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Standardized Sampling by the Same Nurse Could Improve the Positive Rate and Consistency of the Throat Swabs to Detect COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Comparison of Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Patients with Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan and Outside Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Coronavirus Disease-19 Among Children Outside Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Medical Countermeasures Analysis of 2019-nCoV and Vaccine Risks for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE), Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Clinical Characteristics And Risk Factors For Fatal Outcome in Patients With 2019-Coronavirus Infected Disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) The Treatment and Outcomes of Patients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China: A Multi-Centered, Retrospective, Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Early and Critical Care in Severe Patients with COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province, China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) The Epidemiological Trends of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Deceased Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 3, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Seven Cases Infected with SARS-CoV-
2 in the Perioperative Period of Lung Resection: A Retrospective Study from a Single Thoracic Department in Wuhan, China The Monitoring of COVID-19 Infected Cases by Continent under the Application of MDNIDC-Mapping Simulator (Feb 27, 2020) How Does the Outbreak of 2019-NCoV Spread in Mainland China? A Retrospective Analysis of the Dynamic Transmission Routes (Feb 27, 2020) The Monitoring of COVID-19 Infected Cases by Continent under the Application of MDNIDC-Mapping Simulator (Feb 27, 2020) The Viral Load of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Has the Potential to Predict the Clinical Outcomes, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Knowledge, Attitude and Preparedness to Respond to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Among the Bordered Population of Northern Thailand in the Early Period of the Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Caution: Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Patients Are Changing at Admission, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of Seven Cases Infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the Perioperative Period of Lung Resection: A Retrospective Study from a Single Thoracic Department in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Knowledge, Attitude and Preparedness to Respond to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Among the Bordered Population of Northern Thailand in the Early Period of the Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) The Viral Load of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Has the Potential to Predict the Clinical Outcomes, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Infection Outside Wuhan, China: A Multicenter Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Decreased Counts of T Lymphocyte Subsets Predict Prognosis in SARS-CoV-2-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Case Series Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Multiple Enzyme Release, Inflammation Storm and Hypercoagulability Are Prominent Indicators For Disease Progression In COVID-19: A Multi-Centered, Correlation Study with CT Imaging Score, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Clinical Features of 81 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Jingzhou, China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Low Serum Cholesterol Level Among Patients with COVID-19 Infection in Wenzhou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Trends in Transmissibility of 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan and 29 Provinces in China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Early-Stage Vigilance of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Patient Predisposition at Hospital Admission Indirectly Dictates Disease Severity, Clinical Course and Outcomes of COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Dysregulation of Immune Response in Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Characteristics of Disease Progress in 101 Hospitalized Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Single Cell RNA Sequencing Analysis of Human Kidney Reveals the Presence of ACE2 Receptor: A Potential Pathway of COVID-19 Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (March 2, 2020) Key Points of Clinical and CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Imported Pneumonia Based on 21 Cases Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Immunoglobulin G/M and Cytokines Detections in Continuous Sera from Patients with Novel Coronaviruses (2019-nCoV) Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia: Early Stage Chest CT Imaging Features and Clinical Relevance, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Saliva as a Diagnostic Specimen for SARS-CoV-2 by a PCR-Based Assay: A Diagnostic Validity Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 944 Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection of Non-COVID-19 Exporting City, Zhejiang, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Probable Pangolin Origin of 2019-nCoV Associated with Outbreak of COVID-19, Cell Press Sneak Peek (Feb 28, 2020) ACP Risk Grade: A Simple Mortality Index for Patients with Confirmed or Suspected Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Disease (COVID-19) During the Early Stage of Outbreak in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 24 Asymptomatic Infections with COVID-19 Screened Among Close Contacts in Nanjing, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 124 Elderly Outpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Current Situation of the Corona Virus Disease Under Active Control and Prevention in China, Outside Hubei Province: A Real-World Epidemiological Analysis, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Epidemiological Benchmarks of the COVID-19 Outbreak Control in China After Wuhan’s Lockdown: A Modelling Study with an Empirical Approach, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Phase- and Epidemic Regions- Adjusted Estimation of the Number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Cases in China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Characteristics of Pulmonary Auscultation in Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Conjunctival Polymerase Chain Reaction-Tests of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Patients in Shenyang, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) The Spatiotemporal Estimation of the Dynamic Risk and the International Transmission of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Global Perspective, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 457 Cases with Coronavirus Disease 2019, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 28, 2020) Protection of 318 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients from the Outbreak and Rapid Spread of COVID-19 Infection in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 27, 2020) Ocular Dectection of SARS-CoV-2 in 114 Cases of COVID-19 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China: An Observational Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 27, 2020) Artificial Intelligence Application in COVID-19 Diagnosis and Prediction, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 27, 2020) Clinical Efficacy of Arbidol in Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Candidate Targets for Immune Responses to 2019-Novel Coronavirus (nCoV): Sequence Homology- and Bioinformatic-Based Predictions, Cell Press Sneak Peek (Feb 25, 2020) Epidemic Characteristics of 2019-nCoV in China, Jan 23, 2020-Feb 11, 2020, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Survey of Insomnia and Related Social Psychological Factors Among Medical Staffs Involved with the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Trend and Forecasting of the COVID-19 Outbreak in China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Clinical Outcomes of Patients with 2019-nCoV: A Preliminary Summary, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) 2019-nCoV Pneumonia in a Normal Work Infectious Diseases Hospital Besides Hubei Province, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Transmission of 2019-nCoV to Health-Care Workers in the Early Epidemic, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Analysis of 2019-nCoV Infection and Clinical Manifestations of Outpatients: An Epidemiological Study from the Fever Clinic in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) The Ongoing Epidemic of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): Infection and Fatality Trends in Wuhan, Hubei and Across China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Estimation of the Epidemic Properties of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus: A Mathematical Modeling Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 25, 2020) Epidemic Growth and Reproduction Number for the Novel Coronavirus
Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak on the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship from January 20 to February 19, 2020: A Preliminary Data-Driven Analysis (Feb 24, 2020) SARS-CoV-2 Infection Does Not Significantly Cause Acute Renal Injury: An Analysis of 116 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in a Single Hospital, Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 24, 2020) Characteristics of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subset Alteration in 2019-nCoV Pneumonia, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 24, 2020) Clinical and Imaging Evidence of Wuhan-Viral Pneumonia: A Large-Scale Prospective Cohort Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 21, 2020) Statistical Estimate of Epidemic Trend, Suggestions and Lessons for Public Safety from the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19), Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 21, 2020) Epidemic Trend and Transmission Risk of SARS-CoV-2 after Government Intervention in the Mainland of China: A Mathematical Model Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20,2020) Dynamics of the Latest 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Epidemic in China: A Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20,2020) Clinical Characteristics Predicting Progression of COVID-19, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20,2020) Evaluating Incidence and Impact Estimates of the Coronavirus Outbreak from Official and Non-Official Chinese Data Sources (Feb 20, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Patients Infected with COVID-19 in Shishou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Characteristics of COVID-19 Infection In Beijing, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Perceived Social Support and Its Impact on Psychological Status and Quality of Life of Medical Staffs After Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 60 COVID-19-Infected Patients with or Without Renal Injury In Hangzhou, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Analysis of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection and Clinical Characteristics of Outpatients: An Epidemiological Study from the Fever Clinic in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Clinical Characteristics of 5732 Patients with 2019-nCoV Infection, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 20, 2020) Evaluating Incidence and Impact Estimates of the Coronavirus Outbreak from Official and Non-Official Chinese Data Sources (Feb 20, 2020) The Role of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 in Coronaviruses/Influenza Viruses and Cardiovascular Disease, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Estimation of the Time-Varying Reproduction Number of COVID-19 Outbreak in China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Features of 197 Patients Infected with 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Chongqing, China: A Single Center Descriptive Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Longitudinal Characteristics of Lymphocyte Responses and Cytokine Profiles in the Peripheral Blood of SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Rapid Detection of Novel Coronavirus (COVID19) by Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) The Risk of Death in 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Utilize State Transition Matrix Model to Predict the Novel Corona Virus Infection Peak and Patient Distribution, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) The Clinical Characteristics of Myocardial Injury in Severe and Very Severe Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Clinical and High-Resolution CT Features of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pneumonia: Comparison of the Initial and Follow-Up Changes, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 19, 2020) Reverse Logistics Network Design for Effective Management of Medical Waste in Epidemic Outbreak: Insights from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan (Feb 18, 2020) The Psychological Impact of Quarantine and How to Reduce It: Rapid Review of the Evidence, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 6, 2020) Clinical Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Presented Gastrointestinal Symptoms But Without Fever Onset, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 6, 2020) Transmission Dynamics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 5, 2020) Understanding Unreported Cases in the 2019-Ncov Epidemic Outbreak in Wuhan, China, and the Importance of Major Public Health Interventions, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 4, 2020) Epidemic Prediction of 2019-nCoV in Hubei Province and Comparison with SARS in Guangdong Province, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 4, 2020) An Evidence-Based Framework for Priority Clinical Research Questions for 2019-nCoV, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 4, 2020) The Epidemic Dynamics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections in China by 28 January, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 4, 2020) Estimating the Number of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Cases in Chinese Mainland, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 4, 2020) From SARS-CoV to Wuhan 2019-nCoV Outbreak: Similarity of Early Epidemic and Prediction of Future Trends, Cell Press Sneak Peek (Jan 31, 2020) Cell Pyroptosis, a Potential Pathogenic Mechanism of 2019-nCoV Infection (Jan 29, 2020) Estimation of the Transmission Risk of 2019-nCov and Its Implication for Public Health Interventions (Jan 27, 2020) Early transmissibility assessment of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China (Jan 27, 2020) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 99 Cases of 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia in Wuhan, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Jan 27, 2020) Clinical Characteristics and Vertical Transmission Potential of 2019-nCoV Infection in Patients with Pregnancy, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 11, 2020) Clinical Features and Computed Tomographic Manifestations of Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia: A Single Center Study in Shanghai, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 11, 2020) Early in the Epidemic: Impact of Preprints on Global Discourse of 2019-nCOV Transmissibility (Feb 12, 2020) Nowcasting and Forecasting the Spreading of Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV and Its Association with Weather Variables in 30 Chinese Provinces: A Case Study, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 13, 2020) The Evolution of Quarantined and Suspected Cases Determines the Final Trend of the 2019-nCoV Epidemics Based on Multi-Source Data Analyses, Preprints with The Lancet, (Feb 13,2020) Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Outbreak; A Systematic Review for Published Papers, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 13, 2020) Review of Health Security Capacities in Light of 2019-nCoV Outbreak – Opportunities for Strengthening IHR (2005) Implementation, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 13, 2020) Simulating the Infected Population and Spread Trend of 2019-nCov Under Different Policy by EIR Model, Preprints with The Lancet, (Feb 13 2020) Correlation Analysis of the Population Emigration Rate in Wuhan and the Trend of Novel Pneumonia in Hubei Province, Preprints with The Lancet , (Feb 13 2020) The Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection in Changsha, China, Preprints with The Lancet (Feb 13 2020)

Research trends.

Infographic: global research trends in infectious disease.

Download Elsevier’s infographic on infectious disease research trends, top research orgs and the impact of outbreaks.

The Elsevier Community.

COVID-19: Seeking reliable information amid uncertainty.

By Ian Chuang, MD, Chief Medical Officer, Elsevier | February 18, 2020.

Medicine is continuously evolving in terms of refining, revising and discovering new knowledge. This is heightened in importance and compressed in time frame during a crisis such as the current viral outbreak of the COVID-19.

The COVID-19 that originated in Wuhan, China, has exceeded more than 71,000 confirmed cases and over 1,700 deaths since the first case was detected in December 2019. As of February 18, the number of confirmed cases in Singapore has risen to 77. The World Health Organization (WHO) has termed this current epidemic as a global emergency, and it is a public health responsibility at a massive scale.

Accelerating Knowledge-based scientific research.

Knowledge is being discovered every day, and the acquisition of it needs to continue to be validated by evidence-based processes in order to ensure its credibility and usability. A study published on medRxiv has found that the incubation period for the virus in rare cases is as long as 24 days compared to the previously believed 14 days. This was concluded from one patient who reported a 24-day incubation period. Researchers have also found another early identification method which involves using CT scans as the key basis for diagnosing coronavirus infections. However, this diagnostic method was developed from the shortage of test kits and has not been peer-reviewed. Thus it should not be used to guide clinical practice.

This highlights the need to share and review data to validate the reliability of new knowledge so that researchers and scientists who are racing against time can be reassured when determining diagnostics and treatment methods for the patients. In Thailand and here in Singapore, doctors are treating a small number of patients with a cocktail of flu and HIV drugs to test for the efficacy of this combination of medications. While there are promising outcomes from these trials, more extensive research and investigation needs to be conducted to determine if they can be used as a standard form of treatment.

After harnessing the knowledge from scientific research backed by evidence-based processes, it needs to be made readily accessible to the public and healthcare professionals on the front line of patient care in order to provide guidance as to what to communicate, what to look for and what to do. Knowledge is constantly evolving and is only as good as when it can be applied as needed.

Seeking open and trusted communication channels.

The proliferation of social media platforms has fueled uncertainty among the public. Chinese officials have started blocking and disabling social media accounts to maintain social stability amid the crisis. In such times, the public should turn to trusted traditional and credible communication channels. Resources from the WHO, the Ministry of Health and Gov.sg websites allow the public to dispel fake news and receive updates on the latest and most credible information.

Healthcare professionals can overcome the uncertainty about the virus through accessing medical knowledge via clinical resources such as clinical decision support (CDS) tools or research platforms. These platforms have routinely served their needs and are stepping up more to provide more clarity on the prognosis during this epidemic situation. With timely access to the latest clinical research and guidelines integrated with healthcare professionals’ workflows, better guidance can be provided to patients at the point-of-care. A quick analysis of the search activity done on the CDS showed that in times of uncertainty, clinicians turn to these clinical resources for trusted medical knowledge.

Facilitating the free flow of information.

The multitude of digital platforms allow for information to be published and distributed freely. Healthcare professionals need the convenience of seeking out credible research information on one consolidated platform. Medical journals including JAMA Network and The Lancet , and STM publishers including Elsevier, have created their own free-to-access resource centers curated by global health experts to assist health professionals in their research and practice to help draw a close to this outbreak. We also host resources in the Chinese language to support healthcare professionals in China with the latest information and research on the COVID-19.

While we know very little about this current epidemic, scientists and researchers around the world are doing their best to discover new knowledge every day to accelerate scientific research and treatment methods to curb and control the epidemic spread. It is vital that this knowledge is freely shared and widely accessed by both the healthcare professionals and the general public to minimize the impact of this outbreak.

Resources for drug discovery.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 and Anti-Hypertensives in COVID-19.

Dr. Carl (Chip) Lavie of the John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute in New Orleans shares insights from his article appearing online-ahead-of-proof on March 30 in Mayo Clinic Proceedings , where he and his colleagues explore the safety and effects of anti-hypertensives in relation to patients with COVID-19. They note it is too early to make definitive decisions, but it appears anti-hypertensives may be have a preventive effect against lung damage during the course of the disease.

COVID-19 drug therapy — updated on April 15.

Pharmacists in Elsevier’s Clinical Solutions group write about potential treatment options for COVID-19. Read their paper.

New R&D tool to capture clinical trial data is free for researchers studying COVID-19.

Elsevier has just launched Veridata Electronic Data Capture (EDC), which enables clinical researchers to capture clinical trial data in a secure environment. To assist researchers working to develop vaccines and other therapies for COVID-19, Elsevier has pledged to make Veridata EDC available for free. Interested clinical researchers can contact Elsevier customer support via e-mail at covid19@elsevier.com and apply for a demo account. Following the necessary compliance training, they will receive a free 12-month license. Read the press release.

Drug information from Elsevier’s R&D Solutions.

Elsevier’s R&D solutions for pharma and life sciences integrate data, analytics and technology to help researchers make data-driven drug discovery and development decisions and streamline literature monitoring for pharmacovigilance. Here, we use those tools to generate information relevant to combating COVID-19:

121 drugs and natural products successfully used against previous coronavirus infections including SARS. This list was generated using Elsevier’s Pathway Studio. 393 substances that interact with 25 targets related to 6 target species including SARS coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Human coronavirus 229E, Coronaviridae and Coronavirinae, with normalized affinity value > 6. This list was generated using Elsevier’s Reaxys Medicinal Chemistry. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process, whereby cells eliminate damaged or diseased components in order to regenerate and build new healthier cells; thus, viruses are usually identified and disposed of in this way. Would it be possible to induce the autophagy process and limit the viral infection by using some substances? Pathway Studio provides a list of 406 compounds that have been reported inhibiting autophagy pathway, and their related references as well as a list of 802 compounds that have activating roles in autophagy.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings : Possible COVID-19 Pharmacotherapies and QTc/TdP Liability.

The Mayo Clinic Proceedings journal has released a pre-proof of a new paper titled Possible COVID-19 Pharmacotherapies and QTc/TdP Liability. From the abstract: “As the COVID-19 global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the “off label” re-purposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir with the potential for unwanted QT interval prolongation, and a risk of drug induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a significant proportion of the world’s population could receive soon COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or post-exposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help healthcare providers mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk to personnel of COVID 19 exposure and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment. Read the paper.

NEJM podcast: new research on possible treatments for Covid-19 (March 2020)

Dr. Eric Rubin, Editor-in-Chief of NEJM, and Dr. Lindsey Baden, Deputy Editor, talk about new research on possible treatments for Covid-19. Eric Rubin is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal . Listen to the interview.

Interactive map: global disease outbreak experts.

This map represents the most active institutions researching disease outbreak and control. We ran a search in Scopus — a source-neutral abstract and citation database of over 75 million records — for publications researching the coronavirus and related diseases such as SARS from 1996 to the present (Feb 6, 2020). We then used the resulting.

22,000 publications to identify the researchers and institutions that are working in these areas. The map shows the 500 most prolific global institutions, along with the 200 most prolific Chinese institutions by publication count.

Click on a pin to see more about the institution, the numbers of researchers and their publications. Then link through to the researcher’s profiles in Scopus to learn more about their areas of expertise.

Pure portal : Discover research collaborators and institutions globally.

Use this Pure portal to discover novel coronavirus related research collaborators and institutions around the world. It uses Elsevier’s Natural Language Fingerprinting technology, scientific taxonomies and Scopus profiles and can be used to filter and find associated publications.

Public health.

Here, you will find guidance and commentary from experts along with official guidance from major health organizations such as the CDC and WHO. For research on public health and related topics, see our Research section.

COVID-19 Data Insights Map by LexisNexis Risk Solutions.

By combining their data and analytics with those of other industry stakeholders, LexisNexis Health Care created a COVID-19 dataset and interactive visualization to provide insights on at-risk populations and care capacity risks. View the map.

Predictive models for the COVID-19 pandemic – a basis for decision-making.

Ursula von Schenck, MD, Medical Officer, Elsevier Health Analytics | March 27, 2020.

We have seen the virus spread rapidly around the world. It is predicted that in an unmitigated epidemic millions of people will die from COVID-19 not accounting for the potential negative effects of health systems being overwhelmed on mortality. 1, 2 Based on observations and on predictive models massive and unprecedented measures were taken worldwide.

Predictive models – a basis for decision-making.

Mathematical models are used to forecast the course of the epidemic, ICU bed requirements and deaths and to predict the effect of measures like quarantine or social distancing. Despite extensive experience gained in China 3 and a constantly growing amount of data, there are uncertainties about the properties of COVID-19. It therefore should be borne in mind that predictions concerning COVID-19 are still vague.

In epidemiology, it is well known that the course of a virus epidemic is influenced by the reproduction number of the virus (average number of secondary cases each case generates), R, the susceptibility of the population and the duration and severity of the disease.

There are two fundamental strategies dealing with an epidemic:

Suppression aims at reducing the reproduction number to below 1, hence reversing epidemic growth. Suppression policies are best triggered early in an epidemic. Mitigation focuses on slowing the epidemic spread (reducing R, but not below 1). In this case population immunity builds up through the epidemic leading to an eventual decline in case numbers.

Models for Germany 1 , the US and the UK 2 demonstrate that mitigation strategies for COVID-19 are not sufficient to prevent the national healthcare systems emergency surge capacity from exceeding their limits over many times (Fig.1).

The authors of the studies therefore consider suppression the only viable strategy for their countries at the current time. Suppression requires social distancing of the entire population, isolation of cases and household quarantine of their family members.

Can population-based models be generalized?

Population specific conditions such as age distribution and geographical particularities must be considered if the models are to be transferred to other populations. The choice of interventions depends on the relative feasibility of their implementation and their likely effectiveness in different social contexts.

How long must interventions be maintained in force?

The drastic measures taken worldwide to contain the pandemic are unique. Public health interventions and their economic and social consequences have to be constantly evaluated and flexibly adapted. In the evaluation of interventions, a time lag of 2 to 3 weeks due to the delay between the infection and its consequences (e.g., ICU admission) must be taken into account.

Once interventions are eased, infections will begin to rise again. The extent of a second epidemic peak depends on the extent and the mode of withdrawal of interventions, and on the immunity of the population acquired during the epidemic. Reliable information on the immunity status of the population is therefore urgently needed.

References.

Ursula von Schenck, MD , is a board-certified pediatrician with over 25 years of clinical practice and research experience. Prior to joining Elsevier in 2019, she worked as a senior researcher in epidemiology and health monitoring at the national German public health institute, the Robert Koch Institute. She is leading the medical development of predictive and explanatory models based on anonymized health data for Elsevier ‘s Health Analytics team in Berlin.

Why COVID-19 antibody testing is crucial — and what’s needed for it to be effective.

By David Wild, Editor, The Immunoassay Handbook | April 16, 2020.

In medieval times a Friar was walking, deep in thought, along the bank of the River Thames. Suddenly he became aware of two knights arguing loudly. They drew their swords and were about to fight to the death. The Friar intervened. “Pray, gentlemen, what are you arguing about?”

The knights lowered their swords and turned towards him. “It is well known that this is the shortest crossing point of the river, but this disreputable man believes that a shorter route lies around that bend”, one of them explained, pointing along the river.

The Friar realized that he could intervene and prevent one of the knights dying needlessly. He said “But gentlemen, you could settle this dispute by simply measuring the two distances, to test which of you is correct.” He felt quite superior about this undeniable logic and tried not to look too smug about it.

He did not expect what happened next: the knights turned their swords towards him, felled him to the ground, and resumed their argument.

Tests are the unsung heroes of science, engineering and medicine. Even Einstein’s famous thought experiments had to be tested. Usually they assume a low profile, but occasionally they receive intense focus from the public, as now. Suddenly, governments and the media are intensely interested in tests for Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2), for its immediate presence during infection and for evidence of immunity acquired through a previous infection. It is not just the WHO that comprehends the importance of testing, testing and more testing right now.

As a practical example, in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak, a man in Taiwan had a cough for a week, and then woke up with terrible chest pains. He went to the hospital fearing he was infected with coronavirus but was diagnosed as just having a bad cold. According to this man, who reported his experience on Quora (the question and answer website), the Taiwanese National Health Command Centre tests and quarantines anyone with symptoms. If a person tests positive, they trace their previous interactions to identify potential victims so they can test them. Only 348 of the 23 million residents had tested positive as of April 2nd, with 5 deaths, despite a huge regular passage of workers to and from countries with high infection rates.

Insufficient Covid-19 virus tests are available, even in California, a hub of the biotechnology industry, exacerbating an international crisis resulting in many deaths and significant economic damage. Tests for antibody to the Covid-19 virus (anti-SARS-CoV-2) will also be required in great quantities. It is essential that both types of test be developed, manufactured and carried out with relevant skills and extensive experience. Organizational capability and financing are also required. Ideally, existing platforms should be used, as this avoids reinventing the wheel.

The fields of infectious disease management and blood donor screening have been revolutionized by tests for viruses and the antibodies raised against them, but there are risks and pitfalls that need to be recognized. The current effectiveness of tests for HIV and hepatitis, for example, took years to achieve and several generations of tests.

The clinical performance of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases can be evaluated in a number of ways. Two of the simplest measures to understand are clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity.

Clinical sensitivity (or the detection rate) is the percentage of truly infected patients who are detected by the test. This is critical. If the sensitivity is 99%, 1% of infected patients will be missed i.e. are false negatives, and it cannot be assumed that every person who tests negative is free of the disease. In some cases, patients with symptoms of Covid-19 infection have been tested two or three times before a positive result is indicated. The sensitivity achieved by the test depends on the stage of the disease. Asymptomatic individuals who can infect others may be more difficult to detect in the test. The clinical sensitivity should therefore be estimated using a patient population mix appropriate to the intended application. Clinical specificity is the percentage of truly uninfected test subjects who are correctly identified as being free of the virus. If the specificity is 99%, 1% of uninfected subjects show up as being infected in the test (false positives). A clinical specificity of 99% may be acceptable if the test is being applied to symptomatic individuals, but if applied to the general population with a real infection rate of 0.1%, 91% of the infections reported would be false positives.

In theory, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests should achieve high levels of clinical sensitivity and specificity when performed by experienced personnel, but they are complex and there are multiple factors to consider.

Sampling technique is important, to ensure that the infected materials are collected and preserved. This may involve training hundreds of sample collection personnel. Good sample processing is critical to avoid patient mix-ups between sampling and the communication of results. The avoidance of cross-contamination is absolutely crucial for RT-PCR tests as the RNA from minute traces of virus from another sample or air-borne droplet can be amplified causing a false-positive result. False negative results may be caused by contamination, e.g. from powder in gloves when they are changed over, or reagents that have lost potency or become contaminated.

Quality control samples should be run frequently to check assay performance.

The other type of test receiving much attention is testing for antibodies to the virus to establish prior infection and, hopefully, immunity. This is a simple concept to grasp, but the development of a reliable test, with high levels of clinical sensitivity and specificity, is demanding. It might be considered that false negatives, i.e. inability to detect Covid-19 antibodies when they are present, is less serious than false positives, which could lead a person to become exposed to infection, because they mistakenly think they are immune. But if a test consistently underestimates the number of immune patients it could mislead public health organizations that are tracking the outbreak and lead to policy errors. Detectable antibodies do not necessarily equate to full immunity from infection, and the duration of immunity after detection by this test will not be known for some time. Immunity can be short-lived or non-existent after some coronavirus infections. For SARS, immunity typically lasted about 2-3 years.

Soon after infection, the body generates IgM antibodies to fight the virus. For SARS, these were detectable in many patients after 1-2 weeks, but undetectable in some patients. Lagging behind this, IgG antibodies are produced, which provide immunity or partial immunity to future infections. Initial detectability of IgG antibodies in SARS patients varied from 1-14 weeks after infection. To achieve good clinical sensitivity the test must detect IgM and IgG antibodies (although sometimes separate tests are used) and detect a large number of different variants in the complementarity-determining regions of the subjects’ antibodies, as each immunized patient has a unique antibody population, with varying degrees of affinity for the virus. RNA viruses like SARS-CoV-2 have a higher rate of mutation than DNA viruses so the virus against which the patient antibodies are generated may be subtly different from one patient to another.

To achieve good specificity, antibody tests must not give a positive result due to the presence of antibodies against closely related coronaviruses. This is avoided by choosing clearly differentiated surface antigens or inactivated whole virus as the capture reagent(s) in the tests.

The development of COVID-19 tests involves the handling of positive, infectious samples and in some cases, live virus, so specialized containment facilities are required.

There are various versions of RT-PCR tests, but within each version, there is very little difference between tests for different viral RNA sequences. This is fundamentally different to the situation with tests for antibodies, which require significant skill and experience to develop, and very thorough validation. Antibody tests may be simpler to perform than RT-PCR, but tests for antibodies to new viral infections are much more challenging to develop.

Many of the chapters in my book, The Immunoassay Handbook , provide detailed background information. Immunoassays are tests for antigens, using antibodies as reagents, or tests for antibodies (as in this article) that use antigens as capture reagents. The chapter on antibodies also covers antibody technology relevant to some of the new treatments under development by the pharmaceutical industry. Although this book is directly applicable to antibody tests (or tests for virus using antibody-based reagents), the chapter on Clinical Concepts is also applicable to RT-PCR tests for virus.

JAMA coronavirus (COVID-19) update — vaccines and immunity.

JAMA JN Learning | March 25, 2020.

As COVID-19 spreads globally, populations who survive their illness will become immune. Mayo Vaccine Research Group Director Gregory Poland, MD, discusses antibody responses, duration of immunity, vaccine candidates and prospects for using convalescent serum to passively immunize unexposed high-risk people.